This glossary contains an alphabetical list of Buddhist terms that you may find on this website. Many of the terms now include phoneticized Sanskrit (Skt) as well as two forms of Tibetan—the phonetic version (Tib), which is a guide to pronunciation, and transliteration using the Wylie method (Wyl). Search for the term you want by entering it in the search box or browse through the listing by clicking on the letters below. Please see our Content Disclaimer regarding English terms in LYWA publications that may be outdated and should be considered in context.

Glossary terms for "R"

All A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z

rabjung (Tib)

pravrajya (Skt); rab byung (Wyl)

An abbreviation of the Tibetan rabtu jungwa, (Wyl: rab tu byung ba), literally "one who goes forth." A rabjung has taken the five lay vows and promises to abide by the renunciate vows of novice ordination (Tib: getsul; getsulma) in preparation for formally taking the vows later. The rabjung also pledges to renounce lay clothes and signs, wear the robes of an ordained person and shave the head, and follow the teachings of the Buddha.

Rabten Rinpoche, Geshe (1920–86)

The learned Gelugpa lama who was a religious assistant to His Holiness the Dalai Lama before moving to Switzerland in 1975; a guru of Lama Yeshe and Lama Zopa Rinpoche.

Rachevsky, Zina (1930–73)

Lama Yeshe's and Lama Zopa Rinpoche's first Western student, she helped them establish Kopan Monastery and died in retreat in Solu Khumbu, Nepal.


A town in Bihar, northern India; the ancient capital of Magadha kingdom. Vulture's Peak is nearby.

rakshasa (Skt)

sinpo (Tib); srin po (Wyl)

Human-like beings, usually depicted as being very evil, even man-eaters. A shortened version, raksha, is often used.

Ratnasambhava (Skt)

rin chen jung nä (Tib); rin chen ’byung gnas (Wyl)

One of the five buddha types (Dhyani Buddhas), yellow in color, representing the wisdom of equality and the purification of the feeling aggregate.

real I

The I that appears to exist inherently from its own side without depending on causes and conditions, parts or the mind's imputation. It is the object to be refuted.


A mind that holds a stable, correct understanding of a Dharma subject, such as emptiness, that effects a deep change within the continuum of the person. The effortless experience resulting from study, contemplation and meditation that is ripened and nurtured by purification and accumulation of merit and supported by guru devotion practices. Realization begins with a conceptual understanding then progresses toward a non-conceptual direct experience where the mind and its object become indistinguishable, like water into water.


sharana (Skt); kyab (Tib); skyabs (Wyl)

The door to the Dharma path. Having taken refuge from the heart we become an inner being or Buddhist. There are three levels of refuge—Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana—and two or three causes necessary for taking refuge: fearing the sufferings of samsara in general and lower realms in particular; faith that Buddha, Dharma and Sangha have the qualities and power to lead us to happiness, liberation and enlightenment; and (for Mahayana refuge) compassion for all sentient beings. See also absolute refuge, causal refuge, conventional refuge and resultant refuge.


sharira (Skt); rig sel (Tib); ring bsrel (Wyl)

Small, pearl-like pills that manifest spontaneously from holy objects such as statues, stupas or the cremated bodies of great practitioners.


nihsarana (Skt); nge jung (Tib); nges ‘byung (Wyl)

Literally “definite emergence," an abbreviation of nges 'byung gi bsam pa, "the mind of definite emergence," which means to emerge from the depths of samsara. The state of mind not having the slightest attraction to samsaric pleasures for even a second and having the strong wish for liberation. The first of the three principal aspects of the path. See also bodhicitta and emptiness.

resultant refuge

drabüi kyab (Tib); 'bras bu'i skyabs (Wyl)

The potential of our own mind to achieve the absolute refuge, to become a buddha ourselves (resultant Buddha), to actualize the true path within our mental continuum (resultant Dharma) and to attain the state of an arya being (resultant Sangha). To achieve resultant Buddha, Dharma and Sangha we need to first practice causal refuge by relying on the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha already achieved by others. See also conventional refuge.

Ribur Rinpoche (1923–2006)

Recognized as a reincarnation by the Thirteenth Dalai Lama; a geshe of Sera Me Monastery; suffered under Chinese oppression for twenty-one years; a guru of Lama Zopa Rinpoche; lived in the USA and taught in many Western countries. He was given the name Phulchung Gyatso by Phagpa-la Gyatso and Gyalten Ngawang Gyatso by Pabongka Rinpoche when he was ordained, but he never used this name.

right-seeing path

darshana-marga (Skt); tong lam (Tib); mthong lam (Wyl)

The third of the five paths to buddhahood; attained with the direct perception of emptiness. Also called the path of seeing.

rinpoche (Tib)

rin po che (Wyl)

Literally, "precious one." Epithet for an incarnate lama, that is, one who has intentionally taken rebirth in a human form to benefit sentient beings on the path to enlightenment.

ripening result

One of the four ways we can experience the results of an action; the ripening result is the actual realm we are born into when we take rebirth.


The valley in Solu Khumbu, Nepal, were Lama Zopa Rinpoche was sent as a young boy to study.

root delusions

mulaklesha (Skt); tsa wä nyonmong (Tib); rtsa ba'i nyong mongs (Wyl)

One of the six groups of mental factors, these are the afflicted or nonvirtuous minds that subsequently lead to the secondary delusions. There are six: attachment, anger, pride, ignorance, afflicted doubt and afflicted view.

root guru

tsa wä lama (Tib); rtsa ba’i bla ma (Wyl)

The teacher who has had the greatest influence upon a particular disciple’s entering or following the spiritual path.

rupakaya (Skt)

form body; zug ku (Tib); gzugs sku (Wyl)

The form body of a fully enlightened being; the result of the complete and perfect accumulation of merit. It has two aspects: sambhogakaya (enjoyment body), in which the enlightened mind appears in order to benefit highly realized bodhisattvas, and nirmanakaya (emanation body), in which the enlightened mind appears in a form that can benefit ordinary beings. See also dharmakaya, two kayas, three kayas and four kayas.