This glossary contains an alphabetical list of Buddhist terms that you may find on this website. Many of the terms now include phoneticized Sanskrit (Skt) as well as two forms of Tibetan—the phonetic version (Tib), which is a guide to pronunciation, and transliteration using the Wylie method (Wyl). Search for the term you want by entering it in the search box or browse through the listing by clicking on the letters below. Please see our Content Disclaimer regarding English terms in LYWA publications that may be outdated and should be considered in context.
Glossary terms for "C"
The objects of refuge—the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha—existing in the mental continua of others, as opposed to resultant refuge. Only by relying upon these external refuge objects can we achieve our own internal resultant refuge. Causal refuge can be both absolute and relative Buddha, Dharma and Sangha. See also absolute refuge, conventional refuge.
Things that come about in dependence upon causes and conditions; includes all objects experienced by the senses, as well as the mind itself; impermanent phenomena.
A famous seventh-century Indian lay practitioner who challenged Chandrakirti to a debate that lasted many years. His writings include Twenty Verses on the Bodhisattva Vows (Skt: Bodhisattvasamvaravimshakah; Tib: jam chug sem pä dom pa nyi shu pa) and Letter to a Disciple (Skt: Shisyalekha; Tib: lob ma la tring pä tring yik).
Beer made from fermented grain, often barley.
One of the six groups of mental factors, these are factors that can be virtuous, nonvirtuous or neutral depending on one's motivation and the specific situation. There are four: sleep, contrition, investigation and analysis.
The Kadampa geshe who was inspired by Geshe Langri Tangpa's Eight Verses of Thought Transformation and later composed the famous thought transformation text Seven-Point Mind Training.
A disciple of Khedrub-je, one of Lama Tsongkhapa's heart disciples.
Kadampa master and one of Dromtönpa's three main disciples, the other two being Geshe Potowa and Phuchungwa Shönu Gyaltsen (1031–1106).
A tantric practice aimed at destroying self-grasping, where the practitioner visualizes dissecting and distributing the parts of the ordinary body to spirits and other beings as a feast offering.
An ascetic, learned Gelugpa lama who meditated in a small room in Lhasa for nineteen years after the Chinese occupation; a guru of Lama Zopa Rinpoche.
A highly learned and attained lama who was head of the Tsarpa branch of the Sakya tradition; a guru of Lama Zopa Rinpoche.
The great fifteenth-century siddha whose chief disciple was Gyalwa Ensapa.
A long dress or coat worn by Tibetan lay people.
Literally, “taking the essence.” Chulen pills are made of essential ingredients; taking but a few each day, accomplished meditators can remain secluded in retreat for months or years without having to depend upon normal food.
A practice of purifying negative karma and accumulating merit in which a person walks clockwise around a holy object such as a stupa or statue.
The extremely subtle mind which is directly recognized as the culmination of successful tantric practice, and is also accessible or recognizable to ordinary beings at the time of death.
A preliminary subject in the Tibetan Gelug tradition that serves as an introduction to syllogistic reasoning and systematizes and defines basic Buddhist concepts and terms.
Also called mundane siddhi, an attainment or realization of psychic power acquired as a by-product of the spiritual path, not considered helpful in developing toward enlightenment. Includes the various forms of common clairvoyance, invisibility, the ability to fly or travel great distances extremely quickly and so forth. For the traditional list see eight common siddhis. See also siddhi and supreme siddhi. For clairvoyance see five forms of clairvoyance.