This glossary contains an alphabetical list of Buddhist terms that you may find on this website. Many of the terms now include phoneticized Sanskrit (Skt) as well as two forms of Tibetan—the phonetic version (Tib), which is a guide to pronunciation, and transliteration using the Wylie method (Wyl). Search for the term you want by entering it in the search box or browse through the listing by clicking on the letters below. Please see our Content Disclaimer regarding English terms in LYWA publications that may be outdated and should be considered in context.

Glossary terms for "H"

All A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z

Hayagriva (Skt)

tam drin (Tib); rta mgrin (Wyl)

A tantric deity; a wrathful form of Avalokiteshvara.

Heart (of Wisdom) Sutra

prajnaparamita hrdaya (Skt)

The shortest and most recited of the Prajnaparamita sutras (Skt), literally, "perfection of wisdom," the teachings of Shakyamuni Buddha in which the wisdom of emptiness and the path of the bodhisattva are set forth.

Heaven of Thirty-three

Trayastrimsha (Skt); sum chu tsa sum gyi nä (Tib); sum cu rtsa gsum gyi gnas (Wyl)

The highest of the god realm abodes in Buddhist cosmology; it is atop Mount Meru and ruled by Indra.


narak (Skt); nyel wa (Tib); dmyal ba (Wyl)

The samsaric realm with the greatest suffering. There are eight hot hells, eight cold hells and four neighboring hells.


log ta (Tib); log lta (Wyl)

Also called “mistaken wrong views,” one of the five afflicted views that are part of the root afflictions. Heresy is a deluded intelligence that rejects the existence of something that exists, such as karma, reincarnation, the Three Jewels and so forth, and ascribes existence to that which is nonexistent. It is also holding incorrect views about the guru.

Heruka Chakrasamvara (Skt)

Korlo Dompa (Tib); ’khor lo sdom pa (Wyl)

Male meditational deity from the mother tantra class of Highest Yoga Tantra. He is the principal deity connected with the Heruka Vajrasattva practice and was Lama Yeshe's yidam.

higher realms

The higher realms comprise the more fortunate rebirths as a human, god or demi-god. See also the six realms.

Highest Yoga Tantra

Anuttara Yoga Tantra (Skt); la na mä pä gyü (Tib); bla na med pa’i rgyud (Wyl)

The fourth and supreme division of tantric practice, sometimes called Maha-anuttara Yoga Tantra. It consists of the generation and completion stages. Through this practice, one can attain full enlightenment within one lifetime. See also the four classes of tantra.

Hinayana (Skt)

theg mäen (Tib); theg dman (Wyl)

Literally, Small, or Lesser, Vehicle. It is one of the two general divisions of Buddhism. The Hinayana practitioner's motivation for following the Dharma path is principally the intense wish for personal liberation from conditioned existence, or samsara. Two types of Hinayana practitioner are identified: the hearer (Skt: shravaka) and the solitary realizer (Skt: pratyekabuddha). Cf Mahayana; see also Theravada.

Hundred Deities of Tushita

gan den lha gyä ma (Tib) dga' ldan lha brgya'i ma (Wyl)

Ganden Lha Gyäma or Lama Tsongkhapa Guru Yoga, a practice performed daily in Gelug monasteries. Note: Land of Joy, Ganden (Tib) and Tushita (Skt) are synonymous. See also guru yoga.

hungry ghost

preta (Skt); yi dag (Tib); yi dwags (Wyl)

The hungry ghost realm is one of the three lower realms of cyclic existence, exemplied by incredible insatiable hunger and thirst.