Kopan Course No. 12 (1979)

By Kyabje Lama Zopa Rinpoche
Kathmandu, Nepal November 1979 (Archive #350)

The following is a transcript of teachings given by Lama Thubten Zopa Rinpoche at the Twelfth Kopan Meditation Course. Included is a commentary on Shantideva's Bodhicaryavatara (A Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life). The transcript also includes a lecture by Lama Thubten Yeshe and the "Question and Answer" session that followed this lecture. Read an edited excerpt from Lama's lecture here. You may also download the entire contents of these teachings in a pdf file.

Section Eight: Lectures 45-47

Mahayana Precepts December 6th am


Now this one time one has found the precious human rebirth qualified with eight freedoms and ten richnesses, which is highly meaningful, with which one can achieve the three great advantages even in one minute, whatever one wishes to achieve, one has opportunity. This precious human rebirth is difficult to find again in future lives so it is extremely important to make it highly meaningful.

Practicing holy Dharma, working for these three great advantages, should be started right away as one has opportunity. Doing first the works of this life and putting off doing the works for future lives, enlightenment and nirvana, putting off to next year, thinking to do it “whenever I get free time”—this is fooling, cheating oneself.

The time we have this precious human rebirth is definitely not 100 years, it is very short, after 25, 30, 40, 60, this age how much more life is left? Maybe one year, several months, several weeks; even just today it is uncertain whether the death will occur or not. One cannot guarantee, “I will definitely live today.” We do not have power or knowledge to see that without any mistake. Today, this morning, so many people on this earth, even in Katmandu, there are many people dying. Who were very healthy yesterday, nothing wrong, this morning the body became a dead body. Just this morning so many people dying, who were so healthy in the morning, nothing wrong, getting dressed… not existing in the afternoon. Or very healthy in the afternoon but not existing in the night; after having gone to bed, not having time to get up next morning; so many.

It is uncertain whether one is in the group of the people who are dying today. The length of life is extremely short. Even one has 20 or 50 years to live, 15 years go by sleeping night-time; rest of the life, 15 years the daytime life, mostly just passes. Then one cannot practice Dharma due to old-age. Most of the life has worries, problems, disease; lots of the daytime passes like this with the problems of life, lot of time finishes with these things. Rest of the time, most of the day time finished by distractions. So how much time is left for practicing holy Dharma is very little. Actual time for Dharma, even if one lives for 50 years, is very little, that is the least of all.

Even to live 50 years is uncertain. At the moment we have human body, gathered together here, the family, having found human body this time, just like the group of flies come to dirty places, stay for a few seconds and go on to different places: they came from different places, they are together for a few seconds at one point and then they go their individual ways, go away separately. Like that, from the lower realms, the permanent residents of the lower realms taking rest, this time we have come from the lower realm to take a short rest in a human body. Meeting, like the flies, for one or two hours, then going on to different places. Here we are like a family, just for this time having human bodies. Each of us came from different realms, just like the flies, temporarily gathered here by having taken human body; again each one goes back to a different realm. As people gather in a restaurant for a short time then go back. Or how people gather in shops and very soon they separate, go on to different places.

As one’s relatives, friends and parents have been dying one after another, as one has been hearing this unexpectedly, as they die, it is definite one day for one to also die. Same as with other people here, one’s own turn for death; now one hears other people’s death, soon other people will unexpectedly hear of one’s own death, by calling one’s name, “Oh that person died.”

At the death time, all of a sudden one has a heart attack or breathing trouble, then mind thinks, “Oh now is the time of death, now I am dying.” The mind is terribly upset. The whole family kept busy, running, worried, very upset and crying. “Now is my time to die. Oh, now I am dying.” Then the mind is terribly upset, having much fear. That time, even the mind is upset, there is nothing to do. Even the mind is scared of death, nothing to do. Time is finished. There is no time to obtain the method. Breathing out is double.

One knows one is dying. It is time to leave all the surrounding people, the loving, dear ones. It is time to leave everyone and the heart material possessions; the surrounding people, the loving dear ones, with whom one has been living together all this time—now it is time to leave all of them, to separate from them. Oneself is feeling very upset that the whole life has been wasted. One cannot find any worthwhile thing one did in the life, one sees the whole life has been completely wasted and one remembers all the non-virtuous actions that were done in the past. In the present time, one is experiencing all the karmic visions, having much fear and experiencing the fearful karmic visions, the result of negative karmas, and having much pain. Having fear of after this being born, having much fear of experiencing the great sufferings of the lower realms.

It is uncertain when death will happen; it is definite to happen, but not sure when. As it happens to others, it is definite to happen to oneself, one day. The body is left at the cemetery, the consciousness faces towards the lower realms. All the surrounding people, family, friends and relatives are left with eyes full of tears, with greatly upset mind. The body is called “dead body.” The name “dead” is given. The usual name of John, George, Dick or whatever, is joined with the extra name, Dead. Whatever work is not finished, traveling, building house, studying, writing books, business, working in the field, whatever work one is doing…

[break in tape]

… impermanence and death. So such is definite to happen one day. While one is doing the work, without completing it death happens; while one is eating food, without having finished it death occurred; one has gone out to work in the office, at the job, without having opportunity to come back home, death occurred at that time. It is definite: one day while one is doing something, without having time to finish it, death is definite to happen.

By understanding this, what is going to happen in the future, by keeping impermanence and death in the heart, since it is definite to happen, without wasting any time, from now until death time there are a certain number of breaths and however many there are, as much as possible make this precious human rebirth meaningful, without wasting the life.

“During each breath I must attempt as much as possible. However many breaths there are from now until the death time, make each breath highly meaningful as much as possible. I must think well the rest of my life without being crazy. I must remember what is definitely going to happen in the future.”

At least, even one can’t be like the high lamas, mind extremely happy like going for picnic or going home after a long time, how the high lamas’ minds are so happy at the time of death, with much freedom, happy mind as they go to the pure realms.

“I must try to be like that. Even if I can’t be like that at the death time, I must try to be like the middle Dharma practitioner, mind happy, very comfortable at death time, having complete trust to not be reborn in the realm of suffering transmigratory beings, be reborn in the realm of the happy transmigratory beings, mind happy, no doubt at all. Even if that is not possible, I must try at least to be the lowest Dharma practitioner, not having worry or fear at the death time, having a comfortable mind.”

Even one can be like that, able to be reborn again and again in the realm of the happy transmigratory being but still not free from the suffering realms of samsara, one must achieve enlightenment in order to free all the beings from all their suffering and lead them to enlightenment.

“Therefore I am going to take the Mahayana ordination.”

Lecture 45 December 6th am

“I must achieve enlightenment for the benefit of all the mother sentient beings. Therefore, I am going to listen to the commentary on the steps of the path to enlightenment.” By thinking at least a short motivation like this, generate at least the creative bodhicitta. Please listen well to the teaching by generating a good heart—among all the minds, among all the attitudes, the highest attitude, by cultivating the purest, highest attitude, the attitude of bodhicitta.

Reaching the line of the dogs—then the next one: Receiving the line of the devas or gods, whatever name is used. That is how the title is given.

How it is, worldly works and completing the practice. When the practitioner completes the practice, he receives the Buddhahood stage, the highest among the devas, the highest god among the gods. The practitioner, being in the solitude place, renouncing all the worldly works, when he completes the practice of the holy Dharma, he achieves the highest deva among the devas, the buddhahood stage. Usually, the worldly gods, Brahma, Indra, the worldly gods in whom the Hindus take their ultimate refuge, the kings of the realms of the worldly gods, such as Indra—those worldly gods are not free from samsara. Higher than that are arhats, who are free from samsara. Indra and those are higher among the worldly gods, but arhats are higher then them because arhats are liberated from samsara. Higher than that, among all these devas, gods, is the supreme deva, the buddhahood stage, in this life; the practitioner, one who completes the practice of the holy Dharma, receives the supreme deva, buddhahood stage in this life.

If one practices the holy Dharma by renouncing this life, even if the practitioner becomes a beggar, there is no need to doubt that the practitioner will not die in starvation or by famine. He doesn’t need to worry that he might die by starvation or famine. One Kadampa geshe, called Kharag, said he has never seen meditators who have died by feeling cold and by feeling hungry, and it won’t be heard of in the future. One who has completely renounced this life, who is practicing pure Dharma doesn’t meet such these difficulties of life. It is natural. One reason is because the dissatisfactory mind is renounced. One who hasn’t renounced this life, not doing pure Dharma practice, meets so many difficulties in life; dying by starvation, problems like that, by disease, attachment, and so forth. But practitioners don’t experience such difficulties of life, such as dying by hunger and thirst, like that. There has not been anyone, so far there hasn’t been one single story; also as it never happened so far it won’t happen in the future, it won’t be heard of in the future. But worldly people, dying by starvation, ones who do not practice the holy Dharma, who only do the worldly work, there are numberless who met all the difficulties, problems of life, numberless died of starvation, by disease, also by being cold, like that. So, as one has seen so many, also one will hear of worldly people dying of starvation etc. continuously in the future. But a pure Dharma practitioner dying of starvation, it’s impossible; one who really is a pure Dharma practitioner, having renounced this life. Why is it impossible? because of the power of practice. The main reason is that.

Also, another reason, when Guru Shakyamuni Buddha became enlightened, he dedicated the merits for the followers of the teachings’ means of living. There are other reasons, but mainly the power of the person’s pure Dharma practice. Guru Shakyamuni Buddha explained in the teachings, the Compassionate White Lotus Sutra, his prayer: “The followers who follow my teaching, who keep four inches of robe, even just that piece, if they do not get food and drink as they wish, then I have cheated Buddha; in that case, may I not receive enlightenment,” like this.

When Guru Shakyamuni Buddha was a bodhisattva, following the path, generating the bodhicitta, that time he made prayer like this. He also said in the future when people exchange a whole pot of pearls and so forth to buy that much flour, my followers will not have poverty in regards to means of living. Even if all the worldly people have to plow a field the size of a nail, my renounced beings won’t have poverty.

Renouncing this life and renouncing the evil worldly dharmas itself becomes a path of purification. Even contagious diseases get removed. When Kadampa geshe Kharag was old he got leprosy, and his whole family did not want to take care of him. They kept him separate and he was terribly upset, so he made the determination that worldly life has no essence and he renounced it completely and lived on begging, saying the Avalokiteshvara mantra. That night he slept on a rock near the road, and he dreamed he was taken by a river, and then one white man came and took him out of the river, the whole body became completely wet. So after he woke up from the dream all the pus which was inside the wounds came out, he felt very wet, and his disease was recovered. However, this is one example. Renouncing the eight worldly dharmas is recognized as a powerful purification itself.

The great yogi Milarepa prayed like this: “If I am able to die at this hermitage, without my relatives knowing my happiness, without my enemies knowing my suffering, then I the yogi, the yogi’s wish is fulfilled. If I am able to die in this hermitage without friends knowing my old age and without sister knowing my sickness, then the wish of the yogi is fulfilled, my wish is fulfilled. May this prayer that I have done with no one around to hear it be successful for the benefit of all the sentient beings.” There are so many prayers like this.

This part of the subject always gets mixed up, the part of the subject of the lower capable being and general path. I think that much.

I think I stop here.

In regards impermanence and death, you have meditated several times on the basis of the outlines. Normally in the lam-rim meditation, this going through the absorptions, those things normally don’t come. This explanation doesn’t come there, in the lam-rim; this explanation comes when the lama explains the tantra, teachings of Secret Mantra, explanation of the ordinary evolution. After having explained well the ordinary evolution, how normally the sentient beings circle in samsara, details about the intermediate stage, details about reincarnating and being in the womb; there are about twenty-five things—the five senses and five aggregates, the elements —including everything. I just added it to the Wish Fulfilling Golden Sun by taking from the teaching of the Secret Mantra, the part that talks about the evolution of ordinary intermediate stage, ordinary death; details about the death, how the consciousness, from the gross becomes finer and finer.

Normally, that meditation goes with the evolution of ordinary intermediate stage, death and rebirth, then applying the tantra, the Vajrayana methods, the yogas of the different deities. Applying that, which is called the graduated path of generation. This is the main subject, the main object of meditation, one who meditates on the Vajra path, on the graduated path of generation. The Vajrayana path has two parts: graduated paths of generation and accomplishment. Anyway, having those understandings makes I very clear, even though normally it doesn’t come, lamas do not explain particularly in the lam-rim teachings. It’s kind of uncommon in the west, these kinds of details, which you can’t see through a telescope, which you can’t show, which you can’t take pictures of.

The most powerful method, best method, most powerful, immediate, the best remedy, which works immediately, with which you can control the evil worldly dharmas immediately, this is the meditation on impermanence and death. If one wants to control, face any of the disturbing unsubdued minds—pride, jealous mind, ill will, anger, anything—the meditation of impermanence and death is nothing complicated, very easy to understand. It is all around oneself; in the city where one is living, all the time it shows, all the time things happen around, all the time what one hears, what one sees, newspapers, television, movies, even you go for sightseeing, even you go in city for shopping, all the time you see, everything explains, everything shows the impermanence and death; even if one goes for sightseeing, even if one goes for shopping. Generally to control any of the disturbing unsubdued minds, particularly to control the attachment clinging to the happiness of this life, the best remedy, most powerful is meditation on impermanence and death. One who wants to do pure Dharma practice, one who wants to cut off the attachment clinging to the happiness of this life—meditation on impermanence and death should be the main subject to concentrate on, to remember again and again.

If one has generated the realization of impermanence and death then one doesn’t need to go through outlines, one doesn’t have to put much effort in doing the analytical meditation. In the depth of the heart there is a feeling or understanding, very deep in one’s heart one feels the life is very short, one doesn’t think to live long, for many years, especially when one has generated the realization that the actual time of death is indefinite, the second meditation on impermanence and death.

Even if one starts the session, there is the intuitive feeling, the intuitive thought of uncertainty, not only words but from the depth of the heart, feeling, not only words, “it is uncertain that I will complete the session. After I sat down here, on this cushion, it is uncertain that I’ll have chance to get up, it is uncertain.” Even if one goes to make peepee outside, there is definite understanding in the depths of one’s own heart from very inside, uncertainty, not sure to be able to come back. After going to bed, there is the feeling of uncertainty deep inside the heart, uncertainty of having chance to get up in the morning. All the time, whatever the work, action one does, constantly there is the very deep feeling of uncertainty, uncertainty that death may come right now, right this minute. This intuitive feeling, uncertainty of life, of the actual time of death, arises when one’s mind reached such a state as this, when one feels like this intuitively, without effort, without doing analytical meditation from the outlines, when such thought intuitively rises.

Let’s say you have cancer and the doctor tells you, you will die any time, you can die right this hour. Right this hour, even this minute, you can die right this minute, you can die any time; then one gets incredible fear and then constantly, after coming back from the hospital, once the doctor says that, constantly, while you are eating food, any action that you do, no matter, any action that you do, constantly the thought rises, “because the doctor told me that I might die any time.” Even when you drink a cup of tea, also this thought intuitively rises that I may die at any time, not so sure.

By meditating on impermanence and death, especially that the actual time of death is indefinite, when there is such a thought intuitively rising then one has generated the realization of impermanence and death, the actual time of death is indefinite; this realization is achieved. Then as this thought intuitively, constantly arises, continuously he makes preparation for the happiness of future life—no other thought coming except to practice holy Dharma, to make preparation for the happiness of future life, to take the essence with this perfect human body. Then the daily life actions, whatever one does, naturally, easily become holy actions, Dharma, pure Dharma; naturally, without effort. Now we have to put so much effort; because the evil thought of worldly dharma is very strong, we have to put much effort in order to transform it into holy, pure Dharma, into virtue.

After one has generated the realization of impermanence and death it is very difficult for worldly thoughts to rise, so then actions are very difficult to become worldly actions, very difficult. Now it is very difficult to become holy Dharma but that time it is very difficult to become worldly action, so easy to become pure Dharma; now very easy to become worldly action. Naturally it happens; uncontrollably it happens, after having generated the realization of impermanence and death, there is no time for worldly works, only time for Dharma. Now there is a lot of time for worldly work but there is no time to practice pure Dharma. So, the whole thing completely changes by changing, transforming the mind. There is no difficulty, after having generated the realization of impermanence and death, in practicing karma, no difficulty; no difficulty in regards controlling the disturbing unsubdued mind, so easy to control the disturbing unsubdued mind.

So, as Milarepa said with his experience, this is how it becomes.

After having generated the realization of impermanence and death, especially that the actual time of death is indefinite, then, every single action, whatever we do, whatever action is done becomes Dharma. As the great yogi Milarepa said, “I escaped to the mountain by being scared of death, now I have discovered the nature of the mind, the absolute truth; now even death comes, I have no upset. By remembering impermanence and death I have overwhelmed the mara of laziness; any action that is done becomes Dharma.” Milarepa was talking about his experiences, like that.

Meditation on impermanence and death is extremely important, of course, for one who practices Dharma. But, I think, even if one wants to have peace in his life, one who has much confusion in this life, it’s an immediate method to cut off the confusion right in that minute; it’s just a matter of whether the person remembers the meditation or not, right in that minute, in the confusion of life. Before remembering impermanence and death, the confusion was unbelievably great, you can’t stand it, can’t stand it without killing the other person, or without killing yourself; there is incredibly huge depression, driving yourself almost crazy, can’t control yourself. Before it was incredible, unbelievable, but right in that minute when you remember impermanence and death, as is explained in lam-rim teaching, that the actual time of death is indefinite. When you remember karma, the previous, huge incredible confusion becomes nothingness, like a water bubble popped; after that you don’t see that you had problem. It wasn’t a problem. It’s something that makes you laugh at yourself, nonsense. You discover yourself, “What I was thinking, the way I was believing, what I was doing was crazy, nonsense.”

The purpose of explaining the Kadampa practice, the innermost jewels—I am not expecting everybody to become ascetic. But it is important before one practices to have the understanding, understanding is extremely beneficial. Also, I am not asking you to practice Dharma, but after one has understanding, whether one practices or not is in one’s own hand. Is one’s own choice, but as you came here to get advice for the life so I say, I emphasize, anger is very bad.

It is perfectly explained by the Kadampa geshes how they control the anger; anger is terrible, better try to control it. Even if one can’t stop completely, impossible to rise for ever, that cannot happen. Even if one enters in the path, impossible to rise anger does not happen, forever; that does not happen even when one enters in the path, the beginning of the path. However, try to make it less as much as possible, month by month and year by year, try to make it less. And then those other harmful disturbing unsubdued minds, such strong attachment, clinging so much to the happiness of this life, which causes much danger for one’s own life besides others’. The whole Western world is full of examples of this, all the countries, if one [is too attached or angry] there is danger to one’s own life. This is the one that makes even this life unhappy, so try to make it smaller, try to have good heart, to control those disturbing unsubdued minds, anger and attachment, those things, make smaller as much as possible and then try to have good heart. That is what I am asking, that’s the essential advice for the life, also this present life, each hour, life to be happy.

So before starting to explain the program, just brief explanation…

As I explained yesterday, immovable karma means: where results do not change. The immovable karma, which makes the meditator be born in the first category in the world of form, in the first category, in the first level of concentration.

Changing the result, the meditator gets born in the second level of concentration, changing the result of that karma, like that, as I mentioned yesterday, having created the karma to be born in the narak. The person has gone through the intermediate stage on the way to the narak but due to the realization of the lama, power of the lama, due to the profound method of Secret Mantra, the person changes from the narak intermediate stage to being born in the intermediate stage of the human beings and then takes the human body. That result changed, it moved. So, that is movable, that karma, that unfortunate karma which makes to be born in the narak, that’s movable karma, which has possibility to change like that. The other one, the immovable karma, the result does not change; result doesn’t move, so it’s called the immovable karma.

So, after the fourth concentration, again he gets bored of the indifferent feeling, what he comprehends, what he thinks is nothingness. Thinking nothingness, comprehending nothing makes to be born in the realm of formless: the first one, which is called nothingness, then infinite space, infinite consciousness, then the very point of samsara. There are four different categories like this in the formless realm. So you see, person who meditates on nothingness, then thinking this is meditating on shunyata, believing this is meditation on shunyata—comprehending nothingness, meditating on blank, just blank, just space, comprehending nothingness—either it makes to be born animal, it destroys one’s own wisdom, it fools oneself, it causes to be born as an animal, as animal whose mind is so foolish; or, if it’s a little bit fortunate one, that karma makes the person be born in the realm of the formless, such us nothingness, the category nothingness.

Therefore it is emphasized very much, one should understand very well the teaching on shamatha before one meditates, before one makes retreat on shamatha, one-pointed concentration, experiencing the inner pleasures, inner bliss resulting from concentration. Even if one has achievement of samsara, without having renunciation, renouncing attachment, clinging to samsara, the body of the human being, the body of the worldly gods, all samsara. If one does not have the thought of renouncing clinging to all the samsara, then having only the realization of shamatha makes to be born, instead to be free from samsara, one gets reborn again in samsara, in the form and formless worlds.

Next outline: death, transference and joining the rebirth, experiencing death by finishing life.

The conditions of death, finishing life, finishing karma; there are various conditions of death, such as nine different types of conditions of death. Things like that, summarized. At the time of death the karma, which was collected on the consciousness by ignorance and the karmic formations, is made ready by craving and grasping, like heat and water, like the seed that has been planted in the ground, ready to produce the stem. Like that, craving and grasping made the impression of the karma, which was left on the consciousness, made stronger, ready to take, to receive the body.

Craving to this body, thinking now I am separating forever from this body, then clinging to this body; that is craving. Craving is to do with this body.

Grasping is, for instance: if the person is going to be born in the hot narak, at the time of death the person feels extremely cold. What makes to rise the grasping, is the condition, feeling extremely cold then the person has incredible strong desire of heat; probably because of being extremely cold makes the person wish to have fire around that time. Like that it can be different; however the desire is having incredible strong desire for heat, warmth. That’s the grasping, then such as this craving and grasping makes to be born in the hot narak. Similarly, if the person is going to be born in the cold narak, when they are dying they feel extremely cold, they say, “I am so cold.” How many blankets, warm clothes you put, the person never feels warm. If the person is not Dharma practitioner, if he is not lam-rim meditator, someone who does not have understanding of lam-rim, who does not know how to control, who doesn’t know how to recognize the mind, who does not know how to control, then incredible strong desire for heat rises. The other one, to feel cold, kind of to be in the ice, to be in cold water; like for instance, when we feel incredibly hot, we wish right away for the body to be inside the cold water. Like that so strong the grasping rises to the cold. So those craving and grasping are the ones immediately after death, which lead, which make to join to the rebirth in the narak.

I think, similar, also, it’s possible at death time one remembers or one gets dream that time of beautiful birds, certain pictures of animals come, finding much attraction in that, then, while this thought is rising—the ordinary, gross recognition—the consciousness stops. While this desire is rising, the gross consciousness stops. So, as the very last gross consciousness, the gross recognition, is non-virtue, that leads to the rebirth as an animal.

Lecture 46, December 6th pm

Please listen to the teachings by generating well the motivation: “I must achieve enlightenment for the benefit of all the mother sentient beings, therefore, I am going to listen to the commentary of the steps on the path to enlightenment.”

In regards craving and grasping. If the person is going to be reborn in the realms of the happy transmigratory beings, the human being, the craving is the same thing, craving attached to the body, the aggregates; grasping, desiring the human body—then at the time of death, which karma will ripen?

There are many impressions of different karmas, many different virtues and non-virtues left on the consciousness. At the time of death, the object of the craving and grasping will make them stronger. So it depends on which are more powerful; whichever is heavier will bring the result first. If virtuous karma is more powerful, it brings a result of rebirth in the happy transmigrator realms. If non-virtue is more powerful, it brings a result of rebirth in the realm of the suffering transmigrating beings. If they are the same, then whichever was done last brings its corresponding result. If they were done at the same time, whichever is more habitual will bring its result first. If they are same in regards to habit, then whichever karma was collected first will bring the first result.

For example, in regards this, let’s say many people came to a boat, so among those people, whoever is more powerful, who is more like leader of the country, whoever is more powerful first crosses the river. Among these people waiting at the dock, whoever is more important, whoever is more powerful like governors and things like that, then that one goes first in the boat, but if they have same power, then whoever who is closer to the sailor goes first.

I don’t remember habitual karma (Rinpoche laughs.) The next one, if karmas are same habitually, then the first, like whoever made the request, made application in the hand of the sailor, he takes first. The time of making ready the seed of karma which has ripened on the consciousness, the time of that, at the time of death, whatever thought rises, up until the gross recognition stops, the gross consciousness stops—the ability to think, ability to comprehend, the gross consciousness that is functioning now in us—this gross consciousness, either anger rises, jealous mind rises or compassion rises, the thought of compassion rises, the thought of love, the thought of devotion remembering the triple gem, remembering the guru, things like that. Either the person himself remembers or during the time of death the surrounding people become the condition for the person who is dying to arise anger. Depending on the people who are around, you see, it can cause to rise negative mind in the person who is dying or it can also help virtuous thoughts to rise at time of death.

So like that, the person himself, even though there are no surrounding people but if the person himself remembers certain bad relationships he had with certain people, by remembering these things, remembering his enemies or other people who give harm to him, that kind of memory comes up and anger rises, or attachment rises. He remembers objects of attachment, material possessions or a friend, a person being attached, or maybe object of attachment is around him amongst the surrounding people, friends, wife, husband or parents—then strongly attached mind at the time of death, while there is gross recognition, rising the disturbing unsubdued mind—it becomes non-virtuous thought.

In Dharamsala two or three years ago, one very learned monk, who studied so much all his life, who was recognized as a very learned monk, somehow when he was dying he was screaming a lot, he had much pain. Again the same friend, this meditator [Gen Jampa Wangdu], he does not come often to see him, he was in his cave, but somehow he came to see the monk. So this friend, whom I mentioned before as my best friend, tried to tell this monk, “Do you remember there is such thing as bodhicitta? Do you remember?”

This monk whom I mentioned as my best friend, he is not recognized as a learned monk, he didn’t study so much in monastery, he does not have a title given by other people, recognized as geshe, having done examination; but he is rich-minded, his mind is geshe, his mind is rich with realizations, even though he does not have any title recognized by other people. Absolute geshe, even though he does not have title recognized by other people... however, he tried to help this monk, “You remember such things as bodhicitta,” but this monk screamed more, he made very loud noise, then this friend, his name is Jampa Wangdu, saw there was no way to help; by giving him advice it will only cause him too much anger, then he left.

Then the surrounding people who were offering service to him, the lay people who came from same country, they were also thinking how can this be possible, such learned monk like this, at the time of death having much bad time… how is it possible? The friend wanted them not to degenerate their faith, those people who looked after the monk. So he told them, “Oh this monk is very different from us, this monk has only very little negative karma left. So before leaving the body, that’s what he is experiencing now. He is not like us; he has very little negative karma left, so that is what he is experiencing now, without going to the lower realms.” He advised to the surrounding lay people, in order not to degenerate their faith.

So you see, Dharma practice has to be done during the lifetime. To be learned, however much intellectual understanding one has, very difficult; if the mind was not well trained during the lifetime, if one did not practice during the lifetime, then how much one knows Dharma, what the person has learned during the lifetime, how much he learned, how much he knew, difficult to benefit, to make it useful at the death time. So therefore, understanding alone is not enough, practice is important in everyday life, to train the mind in the lam-rim meditation. So, in this way at the time of death, whenever the time of death happens, whenever the death comes the mind is ready; oneself is ready, [knowing] what to do at the time of death, one can look after oneself at the time of death, even there is nobody around.

This is very brave work. The person who can guide himself at the time of death, who can take care of himself at the time of death, making use of what he learned during his life at the time of death, that’s the actual wise person, the real compassionate person. Otherwise the mind is full of words and understanding but when you meet problems in the life you become berserk, completely flummoxed, as if you don’t know Dharma. Especially at the time of death it will happen, like this example, kind of very upset things. How much one has studied, how much one has learned, how much one tries to do practice, if one can not make it useful at the time of death, when one meets the serious problem, the greatest... how to say, danger of the life, that is the death. One studied so much, having much reputation, spent the whole life learning but at the time of death, when one meets the death, one is unable to take care of oneself, unable to take care of one’s own mind; that’s a very upsetting thing.

Usually, even the Tibetan families, when somebody dies, many families have some idea what to do. They don’t let anybody stand there, around the body, when the person is in the process of death, just before the absorptions, those times, like normally who will cause confusion for his mind—that kind of people they don’t send, they don’t let them around. If there are people in the family who know what advice should be given to that person, who is in the process of death, who is on the way to death, they give advice; if not, they invite lamas or monks, whomever they can find. The lama gives advice. They ask the lama, if the person is dead, whether the body is still kept there or not, immediately, when the breath stops, they go to ask the lama to transfer the consciousness into the pure realm, to do this method. Or they invite the lama at home, then they ask to do whatever is the best thing to be done.

If he is a Dharma practitioner, somebody who has received teachings then it is very easy. Who has a guru, has received teachings during his lifetime, it is very easy to help at the time of death, very easy to remind him to remember the guru, or remind him to practice bodhicitta or whatever the deity that person normally meditates on, whatever he uses for visualization; reminding him to hold it, to think of it continuously until the gross consciousness stops, to hold on that.

Then also, according to the understanding of the other person, how much understanding there is in the mind of the other person, kind of reminding of the pure realms of the different buddhas, reminding. And most important thing is emphasizing that there is no essence to be attached to the body, material possessions, family, surrounding people, like that, that is the most important thing; this is the first thing, trying to cut off the attachment clinging to this life. That is the most important thing, this and anger, rising anger, those disturbing unsubdued minds, attachment, these things; these are the ones that throw him in the lower realm if the person dies with this kind of thought. If the person is little bit familiar with the pure realm, if he is practicing certain of the different aspects, like Tara, Avalokiteshvara or different other deities then, even the person himself can’t say the prayer, somebody with whom he has good connection saying, reading the prayers of that deity or prayers to be born in pure realms, making request to actualize the path. It reminds him of the deity, the yoga of that deity. In that way he finds it easier, if there is somebody to remind. It is said in the teachings also, that if one is able to remember the guru that is the best method of transforming the consciousness, and that being will receive enlightenment soon.

I think, the beginning, did not mention; the beginning is: even the great evil one who accumulated the uninterrupted karma, at the time of death, if he is able to remember the guru, it becomes the best method to transfer the consciousness and that being receives enlightenment soon. It is advice, part of the guru practice. Among the gurus if there are gurus to whom one doesn’t have devotion, if the mind is like that, it may be more effective he remembers the one to whom one has more devotion. It is not so much remembering the person, it’s remembering with devotion. Then if the person’s breathing stops, when it has trouble, with much noise breathing out, then one has to say very loudly in the ear, whatever, to remember the Triple Gem or to make request to the guru, by mentioning the holy name of his guru.

Also normally, even the Tibetan people in the house, if somebody dies, they don’t make so much noise around, keep very quiet; it can cause, it can disturb the person’s mind. So, anyway like this.

When high lamas transfer the consciousness into the pure realm, there are also many special signs that happen; like beams come, like rainbow, beams coming from the body, white light coming from the body, which shows signs that the person who died, his consciousness, he was born in the pure realm, his consciousness was transferred to the pure realm.

However, even one is dying, anyway I mention here, the very first thing, the most important thing is trying to cut off the attachment to the body, material possessions and surrounding people. That is the first thing, trying to see how they are essenceless. Then also remembering the shortcomings of samsara, the six shortcomings of samsara: nothing is definite, dissatisfaction, there are six, but especially those two; and also leaving the body again and again; remember all those things so that it cuts off the attachment to this present life’s perfection. Also it cuts off the attachment seeking the samsara perfection, it helps not to have attachment to the whole samsara.

If one can think of the lam-rim teachings that one has listened to, that one has meditated during one’s life, then remember that at the time of death; how the whole samsara, the human realm, the sura, asuras, the three lower realms, how the whole samsara is in the nature of suffering. Try to cut off the attachment by thinking how the whole samsara is in the nature of suffering, trying to cut off the attachment to the body, the samsaric body, the perfections. That is the higher one, better one.

The lowest one is at least cut off the attachment clinging to this life’s happiness and perfection—that is the lowest thing. And on the basis of this, there are practices. The best method at the time of death, if one is going to do the bodhicitta practice at the time of death, then generate compassion by remembering the suffering of all sentient beings, all the kind mother sentient beings; generate compassion, then take all the sentient beings’ suffering on the self-cherishing thought, “I”-grasping ignorance, destroying that self-cherishing thought, “I”-grasping ignorance. Feel the happiness, that all sentient beings become empty of all the suffering, then dedicate, without clinging even to the merit of the dedication, as much as possible dedicate one’s own body, material possessions, the surrounding people, family, the whole thing, even the three times merit—dedicate completely to each sentient being. Dedicate it to each sentient being; each sentient being has received one whole set.

When you take not only the cause of suffering, also the result suffering that they experience now. Not only that, the result, the suffering, all the ugly, impure places of the sentient beings; also those you take in the form of pollution, like fog coming, in the form of pollution. Kind of wiped, like when you clean the garbage with a big broom, like that it takes away all the ugly suffering places of sentient beings, also you take at the same time. Then when you dedicate, dedicate the place to the sentient beings. Then all the sentient beings who practice Dharma, whatever they need, whatever they are missing now; the lower realm beings and the sentient beings who are in the higher realm, whatever they are missing now, they receive; they receive all the enjoyments and whatever they need. Whatever they need they have received from this; the body, the three times merit, material possessions, surrounding people, from this, all these, like wish-granting jewels, all these they have received, everything, whatever they want. Then, those enjoyments become cause to generate the whole path to enlightenment, the whole complete path to enlightenment and the whole place becomes a pure realm, as I described in the part of the usefulness of the perfect human body, as I described the pure realm. Like that if you remember, the lower realms, hot and cold narak realms, ugly places of preta, animals, and human beings—all those are transformed and become pure realm of Buddha. Similar to when you offer a mandala, you visualize all the continents in the pure realm, visualize all the sentient beings enjoying in the pure realm, then you make offerings, similar to that. Then all the sentient beings become enlightened. You can think Avalokiteshvara, if that is the Buddha that you meditate, or you can think guru Shakyamuni Buddha; all the sentient beings become enlightened in the essence of Avalokiteshvara, thinking like that.

… the disturbing unsubdued mind and all the results, whatever they experience now, in the form of pollution, like that. If you are doing with breathing, then, like when you use vacuum to clean the garbage, the air sucks the garbage; like that, as you breath in, same thing, sucking all the suffering of sentient beings, receiving it in the form of pollution, like that.

If you are not doing the practice with breathing then not necessary to go through the nostrils, the suffering, you can visualize in the form of black pollution then just absorb, it goes right through the self-cherishing thought, “I”-grasping ignorance, the ignorance holding the “I” as truly existent. It absorbs to that and it dissolves in emptiness, it completely destroys it.

Even if one wishes to meditate on shunyata, if one can, then one can mediate on shunyata at that time. One can do all these practices, while one is remembering, while one’s mind is aware of emptiness, in the emptiness, as illusory; by looking at all these things, yourself, whom you dedicate, what you dedicate, everything, the sentient beings, the sufferings that you are taking, everything as illusory. With shunyata practice, you can also do this bodhicitta practice.

When you give to the self-cherishing thought, then think: “This self-cherishing thought, this “I”-grasping ignorance who always obliges me to experience suffering in samsara, I’m giving to my enemy; all this stuff I’m giving to my inner enemy, the self-cherishing thought and the “I”-grasping ignorance.” Then do the meditation of destroying it. The aspect is just black pollution but the essence is whatever suffering they have, the essence is that. If it is hot, hot; when they are suffering it is hot but when you receive it, it is not hot, not like that. If you visualize it in the same essence, then it’s very effective for the mind. The worst you can think of, the most harmful thing that you can think of, when you use, when you take it to destroy the self-cherishing thought and the “I”-grasping ignorance, it’s more effective for the mind. Inner pollution is very filthy, very dirty, much dirtier than what you smell in Kathmandu.

Anyway, briefly explaining, this is the way to practice. Always, when you take the suffering, always you should start with compassion, taking other sentient beings’ suffering should be done with compassion, by generating compassion. So, when you generate compassion, first you think of how the sentient beings are suffering; as I explained.

I didn’t get time to do the part of the thought training, the meditation, which leads to bodhicitta, but the other meditation technique to train the mind in bodhicitta, the seven techniques of Mahayana cause and effect, I did at the beginning of the course. As I explained how to generate love and compassion, remember that here. So generate compassion by thinking of the sufferings, generate compassion. Then when you dedicate, generate love by remembering the kindness of the sentient beings.

The kindness, how it is explained in the seven Mahayana techniques, of the sentient beings, the mother’s kindness; and then the kindness, similar, the benefits of cherishing others, all the advantages that one receives by cherishing other sentient beings—that itself is the kindness of mother sentient beings, which does not come in that section of meditation, in the seven techniques of Mahayana cause and effect; this one is deeper.

So, remember both those kindness of sentient beings, kindness by being mother and then other times when they are not mother, how they are extremely kind; both of those kindness, remember. Then, by generating love, you do the prayer of dedication.

Now, I continue talking about death time. After having done the special practice of generating love and compassion, then if one can, after this one should meditate on shunyata. One’s own body, material possessions, surrounding people, the whole life, from birth until now, the whole life is completely empty of existing from its own side, completely empty of true existence—except they are merely labeled by the thought. The whole of this, from beginning up to now, the whole life, the body, material possessions, nothing exists from his own side, nothing, one slightest thing doesn’t exist from it’s own side, the whole thing is merely labeled by the thought—just on that, in that awareness. In fact, as they are like this, they are like this in their nature, so being aware in that while trying to pass away, trying to die while one is meditating on the whole life, the whole thing as illusory, without the mind getting, even one forgets, again remember that.

If one is able to do like this, even one dies while one is doing this special practice of generating compassion and love, this is the best method to transfer the consciousness in the pure realms; there is no more profound thought training method than this, it is much more admired, there is great incredible advantage in the teachings, in the thought training teachings. This practice has incredible advantage and benefits, which cannot be finished explaining. Then, even at the time of death, it is the best method. Even one wishes to transfer the consciousness in pure realm by oneself, even one doesn’t know those profound methods from Secret Mantra, if one is able to do this, even one has incredible pain, whatever happens, the mind is very happy, so happy and relaxed, one is very happy and also one is able to be born in the pure realm, like that.

As many of the meditators, those Kadampa geshes, I think Kadampa Geshe Langri Tangpa, when he was dying, when he was about do die, that time, usually his own attitude is not to be born in the pure realm, his own attitude is to be born in the narak. Kadampa Geshe Langri Tangpa, his own attitude is to be born in the narak for the benefit of other sentient beings, to be born in narak; that is the attitude he has from his own side. He wishes to be born in the narak but what happened at the time of death in the room, the hermitage, wherever he was, while he was sitting on the same cushion, just there, the pure view of the pure realm occurred to him. The pure realm appeared to him. So he told his disciple, “I wish to be born in the narak but now the vision of the pure realm happened, so quickly make offerings,” like that. Such as this are advantages of this practice. You see this geshe, this Kadampa geshe, he wished to be born in the narak, same thing, taking other sentient beings’ suffering. This is same thing, narak beings’ suffering, all the other sentient beings’ suffering, this is same thing, so it has similar benefits, but this one has other benefits.

The person who will be born in the lower realm at the time of death, (without mentioning the stories, all those things) the heat starts to fade from the head to the heart. The very last place for the heat to dissolve, to absorb, is the heart. Heat starts from the head, starts to come down to the heart. The person who has collected much virtue, who dies with a virtuous thought, the heat starts to disappear from the feet, like that.

Then the person experiences karmic visions. The person who is going to be born in the narak, anyway in the lower realms, even before, the negative karma vision like dream, he sees all kind of fearful things, like having fearful dreams. Then the external signs, all the hairs of the body, as the person gets so scared, the hairs stand up, the eyes go back, they go up like this. I think those who saw people dying, they might remember, the eyes go back, kind of like this, showing the white side. The kaka and peepee’s coming, at the time of death, then moving the legs so much on the bed, the hands doing like this. Sometimes the person is able to say what it is seeing, all the terrifying, fearful karmic visions. Sometimes he can’t speak, when the eyes are closed the hands try to grab things, kind of to hold; it is a sign of having fear, seeing karmic visions, or having much pain. However, those who have created much heavy negative karma, who have very heavy negative karma experience all this, they go through all this, the outer signs. Depending on how heavy negative karma the person has created, depending on that, not sure that everybody experience all these five or six things, not sure that everybody does these things, making peepee, kaka all these things at the time of death, by having so much fear. They experience two, three, or four, or the ones who have heavy negative karma do all the things, they do the whole trip. If you watch the people when they are dying, if you watch, if you go to see the people, you can understand; also tears coming because of the fear.

I think I’m not going to talk about the intermediate stage and about reincarnating in the womb, how the intermediate stage being sees the parents, how they leave that stage and how they enter. How the consciousness, what makes them to pass from the intermediate stage to... anyway this is okay. No need to describe the part of the intermediate stage, describing how they are. There are so many details about the evolution, like what is shown in the television, similar, there is a whole, not only the physical evolution, the teaching describes but also the experiences what the baby is experiencing, the suffering, it describes.

First, the being is in the intermediate stage, who is going to be born as human being, sees the seed and blood of the parents, kind of somehow he perceives, he sees it. Somehow he gets hallucinated as those two, the father and mother, are sleeping together, having contact together. Then, with attachment and hatred, after seeing this, they run towards that. Then when he actually comes close to the parent’s bodies, the intermediate stage being doesn’t see the parents’ bodies. All of a sudden it stops, he doesn’t see the parent’s bodies, what he sees is only their sex. Then by seeing the sex, anger arises, by seeing that. Then that anger, the anger is the one that causes, which makes the intermediate stage being die, to leave that realm. Then after that it reincarnates in the fertilized egg.

Just giving some definitions of each of the twelve links, definition, meaning of each. It is called the twelve dependent branches, the Tibetan term for these twelve dependent branches; tan.dor.ya.la.chu.nyi. Tan.dor means dependent, ya.la branches, twelve dependent branches, branches or limbs, whichever is better.

“The secondary mind, which is ignorant in the absolute nature, which is the motivation, throwing the karma of one’s own one-time dependence.”

The reason why “one-time dependence,” each day, in the same day we start many twelve links, with ignorance, we accumulate many karmas, virtue, non-virtue like that, one month, one year, so many. These definitions are complete definitions, which don’t get mixed up with other twelve links; more complete meaning of each one. What it is, is not the principle mind, not the principle mind; it is secondary mind. This ignorance, from those two types of mind it is secondary mind, which clarifies a lot of things. Ignorance in the absolute nature, with which motivation, what it does, it throws the karma, the karma. Not any karma, karma that is one’s own, this is one set of twelve links, you see, one’s own one-time dependence. For instance this body, this present life body has its own set, one set of twelve links. This is one time, you see, this same body is not going to be received again and again, this is one time; so, one’s own one-time dependence.

Opposite to the wisdom realizing voidness, this ignorance, like the blind person; this ignorance itself is not virtue, not non-virtue, it is indifferent, this view of changeable. This ignorance has two types: ignorance in the absolute nature and ignorance in the karma. Ignorance in the karma, actually ignorance in the karma comes from this ignorance in the absolute nature; but the non-virtuous karmas are collected by the mind that is ignorant in the karma, the ignorance that is ignorant of karma. That is the one which accumulates the non-virtuous karma. The ignorance that is ignorant in the karma doesn’t accumulate virtue; virtuous karma is accumulated by the ignorance in the absolute nature, it is accumulated by that. For instance, the karma of this present life, the karma of this present body is accumulated by the ignorance in the absolute nature, the unknowing, which is ignorant in the absolute nature.

The second, karmic formation, I have already translated here: “A secondary mind motivated by ignorance, from its own one-time dependence, throws the future rebirth, which is one’s own object to be thrown.” (Rinpoche laughs) This is very exact, equivalent translation of what is described in the text, in the philosophical text, the debating text, which gives the complete meaning—karmic formation.

You have to say the complete meaning. You see, if the meaning is not complete, what happens is, in the debating subject, if you mention just part of it, then you get completely smashed; so you have to say the whole complete meaning, then you are going to make bread, bread. I’m just joking.

“A secondary mind motivated by ignorance, from its own one-time dependence, throws the future rebirth, which is one’s own object to be thrown.” This is the complete meaning of “karmic formation.” That is as I explained before, the fortunate karma, unfortunate karma and unmovable karma.

As long as one has craving and grasping there is a possibility to create karma, which throws the future rebirth in samsara. The aryan beings, the higher beings—who have achieved the right-seeing path, from the five paths, the third path—have overwhelmed the craving and grasping, so they don’t create karma that throws the rebirth in the samsara.

The third branch of dependence, consciousness. The definition of this consciousness: “The principal consciousness on which the throwing karma, which is one’s own one-time dependence, has just left the impression.” That is the definition of the consciousness; the principal consciousness on which the throwing karma, which is a part of one’s own one-time dependence has left, has just left the impression. Maybe this way it is clear: the principal consciousness, which has just received the impression of the throwing karma, which is one’s own one-time dependence. I think that way it is clear; the principal consciousness which has just received the impression of the throwing karma which is part of one’s own, one time dependence.

This principal consciousness has six different types of consciousness, as is explained in the Wish-Fulfilling Golden Sun, the branches. So the definition…

The fourth dependence, name and form; “Name and form, which is the nature of the contaminated ripening aspect, which exists during the time, after the consciousness of dependence existed, before actualizing the dependence of the sense bases.”

Otherwise, without giving such a definition, there are six consciousnesses and it can be any other consciousness. This can get mixed up. Now, we have the form, we have the name. Without including the consciousness, all the rest of the aggregates, the aggregate of feeling, aggregate of cognition, the compounded aggregates—which means from the fifty-one secondary minds you take out the aggregates of feeling and cognition and all the rest of the fifty-one secondary minds are the compounded aggregates. If you want to know all the rest, after taking out the aggregates of feeling and cognition, the rest of the secondary minds, you can read those pamphlets. There might be pamphlets of Geshe Rabten Rinpoche’s teachings, they must be very clear, so one can read them. All the rest of the secondary minds are the compounded aggregates.

The aggregates of cognition and feeling and the compounded aggregates are called name. Form is the physical part of the base of the “I”.

Even now we have name and form. But this name and form, from the twelve links, name and form, is particularly that which exists only between those times. After the consciousness is actualized and before the sense base became actualized, the name and form that exists between those times, that is recognized. Otherwise, after the sense-base is actualized, there are name and form existing, so we can’t mix everything. So the name and form; “Which is in the nature of contaminated ripening aspect, which exists between the time after the consciousness actualized and before actualizing the dependence of the sense bases,” is the definition of either name or form. Why it should be name or form? Why it can’t be said together? Because one who is reborn in the formless world doesn’t have form, it doesn’t have body and it doesn’t have fertilized egg for consciousness to take place, that’s why there is choice in the title: name or form.

Dedication prayer.

Lecture 47, December 7th pm

I mentioned already the definition of the consciousness. What I did not clarify is, I think, the definition of name and form.

Name or form: which is in the nature of the contaminated ripening aspect, which exists during the time after the dependence of consciousness is actualized and before the dependence of sense bases is actualized; which is in the nature of contaminated ripening aspect.

Ripening aspect—as you remember, the non-virtuous action such as killing has four results, of which the ripening aspect is rebirth in the lower realm. Same thing, the virtuous action, living in the vow of not taking others’ life, again has four results; the ripening aspect is rebirth, in the realm of the happy transmigratory beings. Taking the body, the ripening aspect, always has to do with rebirth. Why ‘contaminated,’ it is translated as contaminated, but I’m not sure how much it is clear. You see, when we were born in the mother’s womb, the name and form—the name, the part of the base of the “I” that is formless phenomena; and the form, the physical part, without including the consciousness, which comes before. So, cognition, feeling and the compounded aggregates are the names, and the forms are the physical parts that can be seen by the eyes.

Our name and form, which was existing in the mother’s womb, was the ripening aspect result of previous good karma. Due to previous good karma accumulated with attachment, attachment seeking the happiness of future life, seeking the body of the future life, like in this life we seek the body of the happy transmigratory being in the future life. Due to ignorance, out of ignorance, attachment rises to the body of the happy transmigratory being, the happiness of future life, and then we accumulate virtue. Like that, this name and form, which was existing in mother’s womb, was the ripening aspect result caused by good karma, good karma which was accumulated, which came from the disturbing unsubdued mind such as seeking the body of the happy transmigratory being, the human body. That attachment came from the ignorance, the view of changeable, the very first branch of this present human body’s twelve links.

So you see, the name and form, which was existing in mother’s womb, that ripening aspect result, those aggregates of name and form are formed by the cause: the disturbing unsubdued mind—ignorance, craving and grasping—and then the actions, karmic formations and becoming. Our name and form, which was existing in the mother’s womb, which was the ripening aspect result, is formed or caused by those disturbing unsubdued minds and karma. That’s why normally I translate as “deluded” rather than “contaminated” ripening aspect result; “deluded ripening aspect result,” because that ripening aspect result, those aggregates, are formed by the disturbing unsubdued mind, they came from that. These aggregates are with the disturbing unsubdued mind, with delusions, of course, they are born with it. They are caused by the disturbing unsubdued mind. That’s why other people have translated as “contaminated” but I’m not sure how clear it is. However, the meaning is that this ripening aspect result is caused by disturbing unsubdued mind, so “deluded ripening aspect,” I think is a little bit clearer. That’s what I think, but I’m not sure how it is to you.

Student: Does it apply also to the one who has taken rebirth with control?
Rinpoche: Yes, yes, that’s right. This makes determination, it separates, by saying “deluded ripening aspect.” That’s right. (Actually, he is an enlightened being, getting enlightened through the twelve links. I’m joking.) Yes, this cuts off by saying… the purpose, without mentioning the deluded ripening aspect of body, it doesn’t give any particular definition, it covers the whole thing—those who are free, who have taken the body with complete freedom over the disturbing unsubdued mind, like those higher bodhisattvas, those who are free from delusion, the buddhas, the arhats, like that. It cuts off that.

Then the sense bases, again similar; they are in the nature of the deluded ripening aspect, the aggregates, which exist during the time after having actualized the name and form and before actualizing the dependence of contact. So you see, it is very particular; from the twelve links, this sense base is not counting the present sense bases that we have now; it talks of that which exist during that time.

The definition of the dependence of contact is the deluded mind that enjoys the object by its own power, by its own capability; also by having gathered the consciousness, the sense base and the object, having gathered these three, by having gathered the object, the sense base, the consciousness. Then, the deluded thought that enjoys the object by its own capability, which exists after having actualized the dependence of contact and before actualizing the dependence of feeling. It has again six types of contact.

The definition of the dependence of feeling: the deluded thought that experiences pleasure, suffering or indifference with the object by its own capability, due to its own cause, the dependence of contact.

Again here same thing, calling it deluded thought, making clear like this, cuts off those who are free from samsara, those who are free from the disturbing unsubdued mind, their feelings and their contact; it cuts off, they are not part of the twelve links, the evolution of samsara.

The dependence of feeling generally has three types; happy, suffering and indifferent, but then, with the six contacts, again there are different feelings with the contact of body, same thing with the contact of mind; again there at three, happy, suffering and indifferent like that.

The definition of craving (actually there are little bit different definitions in different teachings in regards to this, you might not find in all the texts similar definitions, probably I think this is little bit easier to translate.) The definition of craving: “A secondary mind that does not desire to separate from its own object, by its own capability, due to the dependence of feeling.”

There are three different types of craving. Again the examples must be given in the Wish-Fulfilling Golden Sun. Maybe in Dharamsala, in Geshe Ngawang Dhargay’s book, there may be examples of each one, the three different types of craving. It is useful to understand what they are. The last one is the craving to the body, craving that is attached to the aggregates and because of fear of ceasing the “I” at the time of death. This is the moment, how it happens. You see at the time of death, it seems to the person that the “I” is ceasing; around the time when the gross consciousness starts to cease, before it stops, around that time it seems to the person like the “I” is ceasing, becoming non-existent. So then the craving clings to the body, the aggregates with fear. I think this almost always happens at the time of death, clinging to the aggregates, appearing as if I, the self, is kind of ceasing. The two others are easy.

The definition of grasping: “The attachment, which makes the craving strongly increase.”

Actually it is like this: craving and grasping is not only that which rises at the time of death. Every day when craving arises for material possessions, food clothing etc., every day craving arises when we cling to these things. Then also grasping arises, which makes strong determination to have it, which increases the craving, attachment. The grasping determination makes attachment stronger, to have it, to possess it. The craving is like the preparation.

Normally the karma to be born as a preta is the craving and grasping. Not only that, during the life, each time craving and grasping arise it makes stronger and stronger the karma, makes more and more ready the impression, karma, which is planted on the consciousness, which makes to be born as preta, the karma of the preta. Similarly, the karma to born as human being; the karma to be born as human being, which was planted on the consciousness, each time when we wish to have human body, each time we accumulate merit for that, at those times also craving makes the karma to be born as human being stronger and stronger, each time we wish to be born as human being, accumulate merit. During the life like this, and then also at the time of death, if that karma is stronger, that’s what becomes ready. Like that. Similarly, during our life, when we feel incredibly hot, cling so much to the cold, that is also the craving, which makes more powerful the impression of the karma to be born in the narak, makes it stronger and stronger, each time the craving rises. So, it is not something which only happens at death time, it’s not like that. It is something that is made powerful during the life time; the karma is made more and more powerful each time by rising the craving and grasping.

So grasping has four different types of grasping, most of them, what I explained, the five different wrong views.

Then, becoming: “The secondary mind, which is nature of deluded ripening aspect, which is the power of the karma, become highly strong, became extremely powerful by its own one-time twelve-link dependence, craving and grasping.”

There are four different becoming. The decay of the aggregates, becoming older by the karma and disturbing unsubdued mind, is the definition of old age; the aggregate becoming older by the power of karma and disturbing unsubdued mind. That is cut off—the beings who are free from samsara, even though they manifest the old body, it has nothing to do with the cause karma and disturbing unsubdued mind, so it cuts off that.

This old age started since the consciousness took place in the fertilized egg, it starts from the second of the seconds; after the consciousness took place in the fertilized egg, the first second, then the second second. Is it right? “The next second.” From the next second, it starts the old age. Generally in the world, old age is, I don’t know, after some time—in fact, old age starts from that, the next second.

Again same thing, the definition of the dependence of death: “Leaving the ripening aspect, the aggregates, by being under the control of karma and the disturbing unsubdued mind.” That is the definition of the dependence of death; leaving the body, separating, the consciousness leaving the body by being under the control of karma and disturbing unsubdued mind, without choice—that is the definition of the samsaric death.

There are many details about the twelve links; how each of the twelve links works within two lifetimes or three lifetimes. That I’m not going to explain, I think you meditated already so it doesn’t need to be clarified again.

All these twelve links divide into two: true suffering and true cause of suffering.

Ignorance, the view of changeable, and craving and grasping are the true cause of suffering, which is called the all-arising truth, the true cause of suffering, the disturbing unsubdued mind, the all-arising truth; then karmic formations and becoming, those two actions of karma. Those three disturbing unsubdued minds and the two actions of karma; the disturbing unsubdued mind and karma, those two are true cause of suffering. The rest of the seven are true suffering. If divided into two, the true cause of suffering and true suffering, the rest of the seven are true suffering.

To cease continuously experiencing true suffering, one must cease the true cause of suffering, the disturbing unsubdued mind and karma. That depends on cutting off the root, the ignorance, the view of changeable. What cuts off the view of changeable, ignorance, the root of the samsara, is realizing right view.

There are different right views—generally, the worldly right views, understanding and having faith in karma; receiving the happiness resulting from virtue and the suffering result arising from non-virtue; that is the worldly beings’ right view. Without having this worldly right view it is impossible to realize, without having faith in the karma, without need to care about karma, without being concerned of karma, without need to protect the karma, impossible, there is no way to realize the…

... without need to think at all of karma and just meditating on shunyata, like that, just straight away meditating on shunyata, is like expecting milk to come from the horn; it’s like milking from the horn. How much you milk, all the year, the milk doesn’t come. It is not easy to realize shunyata, is not just one or two hours meditating, reading books that talk about shunyata, meditating one or two hours, just sitting quietly and suddenly realizing, suddenly kind of seeing shunyata; it’s not like that. It’s not like that. Or meditating a few months, few years meditating, kind of easily realizing voidness. It’s not like that. The more faith in karma the person has, as the person accumulates that much more merit, it is easier, because it purifies, it stops the hindrances, the obscuration, the blocks. It purifies, so it is easier for that person to see the real nature of the self, the absolute nature of the self.

So, the practice of protecting karma, having definite understanding, having faith in the very first thing, the worldly right view, karma, is very important. If one is not careful in this, the mind meditating on shunyata and on tantra, like that, if you don’t watch your front step, if you look very far, expecting to reach very far, but are not careful of the steps here in front of you, there is danger. If you are not careful of what is in front of you, if we are not careful, there is danger of falling down, then one won’t reach to that beautiful area, beautiful path. So it is important, in order to reach there, to be careful of the step at the door, which is in front of oneself. It is the same also to generate bodhicitta, to realize shunyata and, of course, realization of tantra; first thing, most important thing is the karma.

However, then, the right view; different people in the world, the different followers, every one might use “the right view,” “right view.” But the right view that cuts off the root of ignorance, which is shown in the teaching of Buddha, the definite meaning, which is explained by Buddha, the teachings that are the definite meanings, those true teachings. The right view that is explained in the teaching by Nagarjuna, by Chandrakirti, Aryadeva, Shantideva, Lama Tsongkhapa and many other lamas, Marpa, Milarepa, many other lamas; the right view that they have realized, what they have explained in these true teachings. What they have explained, the right view, this is the one which makes generate the wisdom realizing emptiness of truly existing self, which is complete opposite to the ignorance, the view of changeable, in regards perceiving the object; which is completely the opposite—the wisdom realizing the emptiness of self existent “I” and the ignorance believing, holding the “I” as truly existent.

Chandrakirti, the great pandit, said in the teaching of Madhyamaka, the middle way teaching, the root teaching that monks study in the monasteries, in the classes they spend three years, many years to study. In Tibet, I think they spend nights. In our colleges, the monks who study Madhyamaka, when they reach that class, three years, they spend the whole night debating, besides debating in day time, they debate in night time; they debate in night time for three years, the whole night they debate.

Anyway, Chandrakirti said, “One who is out of the path of Nagarjuna has no method to achieve peace.” The reason is this; those who are out of Nagarjuna’s path don’t have understanding. What Chandrakirti is saying is one who is out of Nagarjuna’s path, one who does not follow the teaching of the right view as Nagarjuna has explained, Nagarjuna’s path, the view of shunyata, one who is out of this has no method to achieve peace, nirvana. Why? because he has no perfect understanding of the two truths: the deceptive truth and the absolute truth, has no understanding, understanding of these two truths is degenerated. So, one who is out of the path of Nagarjuna has no method to achieve peace; as long as he is out of Nagarjuna’s path, no way to realize the absolute nature of the “I.” So there is no way to receive peace, the nirvana.

By having met the teachings of Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, the definite meaning, the teachings which explain the right view, then Nagarjuna and those great pandits’ teachings, and Lama Tsongkhapa’s teaching, which has incredible clarification of those Nagarjuna and those great pandits’ teachings. By listening to, understanding and meditating on that, one generates easily, correctly, the wisdom realizing voidness, the right view; the wisdom realizing the right view, which cuts off the ignorance that is the root of the samsara. So if, without mistakes, one wants to see the absolute nature of the “I,” one should meet this true teaching, then practice and meditate as one understands.

In order to generate the wisdom realizing the absolute nature of the “I,” first, of course, receiving the explanations from a well experienced teacher, one who has perfect understanding of these teachings. In order to destroy the ignorance, the root of samsara, one must realize the object of ignorance, the view of changeable, as empty—the “I,” which ignorance holds, is empty, completely empty—one should realize this. In order to realize the object that ignorance holds is empty, first one should recognize that the object of ignorance is false. In order to recognize that it is false, first one should find the object—which cannot be found. What I mean is the object, the “I,” what ignorance believes or holds, should be found, it should be recognized.

I don’t remember the quotation of Lama Tsongkhapa from the Three Principles of the Path to Enlightenment, from that short teaching, I don’t remember the quotation, it is very effective for the mind. Anyway, at the end it emphasizes: so therefore, having generated bodhisattva alone is not sufficient; one must realize the right view, selflessness; one must realize this. In order to realize this, one must attempt to realize the dependence. Especially, at the very end, he emphasizes the dependence, it is like the key in order to realize shunyata, the absolute nature of the “I.” He emphasizes at the very end: “So therefore, one should attempt to realize dependence.”

It is extremely important to recognize the “I” that doesn’t exist, the non-existent “I,” and the “I” that exists. Similarly, with all the objects of the six consciousnesses, it is important to recognize which are non-existent; from among what ignorance believes and holds, to recognize which are non-existent objects and which are existent objects; to recognize this is important.

Example, an old man who can’t get up and do the work by himself, has to depend on a stick in order to go out for shopping, to do the works. By depending on the stick, he is able to get up to do the work, go to make peepee, ka-ka and all those things. Without depending on the stick, you see, he can’t do it by himself. The old man standing up by himself, going shopping, doing the works without depending on that stick—that is empty, that doesn’t exist, that is empty; without depending on the stick, standing up unaided, doing shopping, these things, that is empty, that doesn’t exist. Without the stick he can’t do the work, so by depending on the stick he does the work.

Similarly, like the old man is dependant on the stick, the self, the “I” is also dependant on the labeling base, the aggregates, and the subject, the one who labels the thought and name on the base, the one who labels the thought and the name, merely labeling on the labeling base, the five aggregates. Just by labeling on the base, the five aggregates, that is how the “I,” by depending on all this, does the work, does the functions. Like the old man by depending on the stick does the work, similarly “I,” by depending on the labeling base, the aggregates, and the thought and name, the one which labels “I”—by depending on those, that’s how “I” exists, that’s how “I” is able to do the functions. “I,” which does not depend on the labeling base, the aggregates and the thought and name, does not exist and it doesn’t do any functions. As it doesn’t exist how can it do the functions?

How the “I” is dependent on the base and the thought and name, like this… [long pause] as the “I” exists, the self exists, on the mere vision of the aggregates, that group of body and mind, the “I” is just labeled, merely labeled on that, just that mere appearance, the mere vision of the base—the aggregates “I” is merely labeled on that. By the thought, “I” is just merely labeled on that.

As the “I” exists like that, by depending, by being merely labeled on the mere vision of the aggregates, as the “I” is dependent like that… the base, the aggregates, in fact appears real, kind of solid from it’s own side, in the view of our normal conception, the mind; even though it appears like that, in fact, how it is? Just having gathered the five aggregates or skandhas, and merely labeled on that. Similarly the body; in regards the appearance of the body to one’s mind, the body is appearing from its own side, a real body appearing from its own side. When you look at your hand, when you look at your own body, a real body is appearing from its own side. Even though the appearance, the view that appears to one’s own mind is like that, but in fact the body, the mere group of limbs, all together, the mere group of these is called ‘body,’ merely labeled on that by the thought. Like that limbs are also merely labeled, the groups of the limbs. Going back like this, then comes down to the atoms; even each atom is merely labeled on the base, the particles, they are also depending on their particles. So like that, the whole thing is merely labeled on its own labeling base; the labeling subject, the mind has merely labeled on that, “this and this and that,” by giving name.

Similarly the mind; when we look at the body, above the group of the parts of the body, there is a body appearing to oneself, from above the group of the parts of the body there is a real body appearing to one. For instance, when you look at your own hands, when you look at your finger, above the groups of the parts of the finger, there is a real finger from its own side—this is the view of truly existent finger, body; this belief is the belief of ignorance. What it believes—that doesn’t exist. Such as this body from above the group of the parts of the body, this real body appearing to oneself—that is what the ignorance believes, that is the non-existent body.

Similarly, when we think and when we talk about the mind, when we talk about consciousness, about mind, again, how it appears to one’s own mind, when we talk about the mind; again a definite shape or color, nothing appears to one’s own mind, but even though it is formless, cannot be seen, but again, above the mind there is a real mind from its own side. Above the mind, on the mind there is a mind that exists from its own side. What is that? Such that mind which appears to one, is the truly existent mind; how the ignorance believes, that truly existent mind, that is what doesn’t exist at all.

Again the mind, as I mentioned in the beginning, when I introduced reincarnation, same thing, already I talked of shunyata at the beginning, actually the....

… on the body, from above the group of the parts of the body, real body appearing to oneself. On the mind, there’s a real mind existing from its own side. This is what we have to realize is empty, as it is empty in fact.

The emptiness of such as this truly existent mind and such as this truly existent body, that is what it is the selflessness of existence. There are two things, the selflessness of person and the selflessness of existence. Selflessness of person is the absolute nature of “I.” Selflessness of existence has to do with the skandhas. Having realized the absolute nature of the “I,” right after that one tries to realize the absolute nature of the aggregates; at that time, then one realizes the selflessness of existence, the absolute nature of the existence.

The mind, as I mentioned at the beginning, one hour of mind is dependent on all those minutes, the parts of the mind. There’s no part like the physical, but the previous and later minutes of mind. Then one minute of mind depends on all those seconds of mind, it is labeled on those seconds of mind. Again, one second of mind is merely labeled on the base, the split second of mind, by the labeling subject, the thought. Starting from the self, the whole thing exists by being labeled on the base. So there’s not one slightest atom, “I” or the aggregates, which exists from its own side, only from the side of the thought, merely labeled. All the rest of existence is dependent as I described the “I” and the aggregates, they dependently exist.

Clarifying how the “I” is dependent, a little more clarifying. Now, what I am doing here? I am sitting here on this cushion. Why am I sitting here? Why do I call this “I’m sitting here?” Why? Why this? What is the reason I call “I am sitting here.”? No other reason. Only because the base, the group of the body and mind is here, the body is sitting here, on this cushion; the aggregates are sitting on this cushion. Only because of that reason; there’s no other reason why I say, “I’m sitting here,” no other reason at all. There’s no other profound or secret reason behind or somewhere. Only that the aggregates are sitting on this cushion. That’s all, nothing else, just only that; there’s no other reason. No other reason.

Just by thinking this, this very simple thing, question oneself, “How I am sitting, why do I say, ‘I am sitting here?’” Because the aggregates are sitting here; that’s all, nothing else. So, even thinking this shakes ignorance, the root of samsara. Just think simply this: “How am I dependent on the aggregates? ‘I am sitting,’” how this is dependent just on the aggregates sitting. You see that much it hurts the object of ignorance, the false “I,” which does not exist.

Same, after this session when one stands up: “Now I’m standing up. Why? Why do I say this? Why? There’s no reason at all, except the body, these aggregates, are standing up. That’s all, nothing else, nothing else.” Clear. Very clean, very clear, nothing else, that’s all. There’s no other reason. Then, “I’m drinking tea, I am drinking tea. I am tired. I am tired. Why am I’m tired?” Why? Because the aggregates, body and mind are tired, feeling bored. That’s all, no other reason at all, nothing else; there’s no reason why “I” is tired, except this. “I am drinking. Why? Because the body is doing the function of putting tea in the mouth, pouring through; that’s all, nothing else, no other reason why I’m drinking tea.” Whatever function the aggregates do, then “I’m doing this, I am doing that,” merely according to whatever the aggregates do, different functions. “I’m doing this, I am doing that,” merely labeled on that base by thought. You see, there’s no “I,” there’s no real truly existent “I” that exists from its own side—not merely labeled by thought and name—doing the function of sitting here. There’s no such “I,” there’s nothing like that.

In order to stop here (laughter), I will just mention, just introduce the refuting object, then it’s finished.

How quickly the person realizes shunyata depends on, the whole key is the very first one. There are four analyses—four vital, important points. How the person can quickly realize shunyata, depends upon how much the person is able to recognize the very first point, recognizing the refuting object—recognizing the object of the ignorance. How quickly and how easily the person can realize absolute nature of “I,” the whole thing depends on that. So the recognition of the refuting object, the object of ignorance, is the whole key. As long as you don’t recognize that, however many eons, however many years you meditate on shunyata by analyzing, you don’t see the absolute nature of the “I.” You don’t see the “I” is empty of true existence, you don’t see it. There’s no way to see it.

Once you have recognized this clearly—the object of ignorance, the refuting object, the non-existent “I”—once you have recognized this, it doesn’t take much time to realize shunyata, it’s just a minute (Rinpoche laughs.) The very first one is extremely important.

When you meditate, even if one has found, “This is what the teachings explained,” the object of ignorance, one should not be satisfied just easily, one should make it stronger, one should recognize it very clearly, in order to make it stronger. The non-existent I, the object of ignorance that we have to realize is empty, doesn’t exist—that is this.

Right now, right now, at this moment, the aggregates, the base, the body and mind, all these things, nothing is clear; from above that, on that, there’s a truly existent tight, tight “I” existing from its own side. Right now, the “I” that appears to oneself, what you are seeing and believing now, that is what doesn’t exist. That is what we have to realize is empty. It is nothing kind of going deeper or somewhere, not somewhere you have to open some door, nothing like that. From above the aggregates, there’s an “I,” which exists from its own side, a tight, truly existent, tight “I”—as it appears to one, the ignorance believes it and then clings to it. “Oh this is a truly existent I, this is real,” believing this is real, it clings to it. That is what doesn’t exist at all. That is what cannot be found, from the top of the hair down to the feet, anywhere. This is the false I, this is the truly-existent I; this is what we have to realize is empty, as it is empty in fact, by doing such as the four analyses. This is the short way of doing the four analyses meditation.

You see, in the night time, when you don’t have a light, you go to your room, you bang your head on the pillar. When you bang your head on the pillar, there’s a pillar—not that you have labeled, but there’s a pillar from its own side (laughter.) There’s a real pillar there, which exists from its own side, not which you have labeled “pillar” when you touched it. That is the object of ignorance, the truly existent pillar. That is that which cannot be found.

The “I,” which is merely labeled on the aggregates does not appear as if it is merely labeled on the aggregates, even though in fact, the “I” is merely labeled on the aggregates. Normally, this is the “I” that we are always concerned about, that we are worried that something is going to happen to. The “I” that we believe exists, which doesn’t exist.

We will dedicate the merits in order to quickly generate bodhicitta. Without bodhicitta, even with realization of shunyata, one cannot achieve enlightenment for the benefit of other mother sentient beings.

Jangchub….. (dedication prayer.)

I would like to say thank you very much for everybody, at the very end, especially for those who have been taking ordination every morning, feeling very cold and tired, by renouncing the warmth, comfortable nirvana, the sleeping bag, coming here to suffer Rinpoche laughs, general laughter.) Anyway, I have great rejoicefulness, also that you have put such effort during this one month, even though it is very hard, the discipline and everything, having much pain in the knees, backside and there and there, pains in the head, in the heart. Anyway, however there are many difficulties, by bearing all these, coming to the sessions, listening to the teachings. I have great rejoicefulness and also I pray to dedicate the merits in all the future lives, due to this karma, merit, in order to meet perfect gurus, to receive the teachings and gradually by proceeding on the path, to receive enlightenment. I would like to say thank you very much.

Many people might have made notes on the lectures. Sometimes, I got mixed up, when I talk I get mixed up with things, like “the nest of the bird,” due to language and many things, so in your notes there might be mistakes, due to language, not understanding, many things, ignorance, like that. So check and you can ask those who understand. Those things that are mistaken, leave them, and those that are good, take, use, then you apply for your own disease. I think that’s all. Thank you very much.

Chenrezig Initiation

… making offering to the front. The preparation that needs to be done from the side of the disciple, before entering, cleaning the mouth and then offering flowers; there is no need to cover everybody, but just in front, taking and putting in the same place. Normally, traditional way, they keep half for mandala offering and half throw back for offering flower.

Before giving the blessing of Avalokiteshvara, you need very strong motivation of bodhicitta. The prerequisite quality, the preparation that is necessary in our mind in order to receive Avalokiteshvara’s blessing, is the strong motivation of bodhicitta.

Before actually giving the blessing, I will make a break so that time, those who take the initiation come for the second session, those who don’t take can leave.

At this time, one has received the inner condition, the precious human body qualified with eight freedoms and ten richnesses, and the outer condition, the virtuous teacher who is able to show the complete path to enlightenment. The teaching that one has met is the teaching of the steps of the path to enlightenment, which completes the whole path from beginning to enlightenment, not partial.

At this time, while we have this perfect human body, which is highly meaningful, which is difficult to find again, without utilizing this, again accumulating meaningless work or the non-virtuous actions that throw oneself again back to the lower realm, which has been our permanent residence since beginningless previous lives—after having found such a perfect human body like this, not making it highly meaningful, doing only meaningless work, if one is reborn in the lower realm it is a very upsetting thing. It is a great waste, one has wasted this highly meaningful perfect human body—not being born in the lower realm, being born in the realm of the happy transmigratory being, by practicing moral conduct, charity, creating the cause, moral conduct and charity, making prayers to be born in the realm of the happy transmigratory being, and having found the body of the happy transmigratory being. Even if one has found this body now, it is still uncertain; it’s like coming in the human realm for sightseeing, for a short time from the lower realm. It is not certain we will always be here. Just like a football match, for one or two hours, then it is over. Even if one is reborn in the realm of the happy beings, it’s like escaping from one fireplace to another--one has left one suffering body only to take another. The consciousness left one suffering body to take another. Still there is no peace.

Whatever aggregates one takes in samsara, wherever one takes rebirth, one is not free from the fundamental suffering: the pervasive compounded suffering, which is the base for the suffering of changes, the samsaric pleasures, and the suffering of suffering. These aggregates to which one is tied by the disturbing unsubdued mind and karma are like the net of the snake, the hole in which the thorns lie. When one falls down in a big hole, which is full of thorns, whichever way one moves, one gets thorns, there is no peace. Like that, as long one is not free from this pervasive compounded suffering, these aggregates formed by the disturbing unsubdued mind and karmas, as long as one is not free from this, whatever action one does is always in the nature of the suffering.

In order to be free from that, one has to break the rope of the disturbing unsubdued mind and karma, which ties you to this burden, like a huge load of iron, oneness with fire. To be free, to receive the stage of peace, one should break the rope of the delusion and karma. Constantly, as long as one is carrying this, as long as one is bound to this by the rope of the disturbing unsubdued mind and karma, there is no peace even for a second, no real freedom from samsara, no real peace even for a second.

Why is it called the pervasive compounded suffering; pervasive? These aggregates are formed by the disturbing unsubdued mind and karma; from this base the suffering of changes and the suffering of suffering arise (all other suffering is divided into these two.) The pervasive compounded suffering, these aggregates, is the foundation; the rest of the suffering of samsara arises from these aggregates. These aggregates cover or pervade the rest of samsaric suffering, so it is called pervasive. Compounded: because, one way, these aggregates are the result of the cause, the disturbing unsubdued mind and karma. This cause, the disturbing unsubdued mind and karma has formed this, like fruit that came from the seed. Like that, this is formed by the disturbing unsubdued mind and karma. Why this is in the nature of suffering is because the cause of this samsara, these aggregates, is not something other than disturbing unsubdued mind. They did not come from omniscient mind, from the wisdom realizing absolute nature. The cause from where they came is the disturbing unsubdued mind and karma, so therefore the result, these aggregates, are in the nature of suffering.

Also, you see, the physical and the formless parts of the aggregates, the knowing phenomena, are caused by the disturbing unsubdued mind and karmas. And also what put together the consciousness with this body, the fertilized egg, what has compounded them? It is by the disturbing unsubdued mind and karma of this particular set of twelve links.

Even if one has achieved the blissful state of peace, nirvana, still one hasn’t completed one’s own and other sentient beings’ work, all the knowledge and realizations. One hasn’t purified all the obscurations, due to not having completed the works for oneself and others, there is no bodhicitta in the mind of the arhat. This is a selfish motive, only satisfying oneself by having achieved the blissful state of peace.

Oneself and other sentient beings are exactly equal, exactly equal; not desiring even the smallest suffering, even in the dream, wishing for even the smallest pleasure. Not having satisfaction in the pleasure—that is exactly the same, there is not one single difference. As oneself desires happiness, does not desire suffering, all the other sentient beings are exactly the same, desiring happiness, not desiring suffering, it is exactly the same.

“There is not one single reason why I’m more important, why my happiness is more important than the enemy’s happiness. There is not one slightest reason.”

Renouncing others, cherishing oneself is the root of all the suffering, the base of all the suffering. Because of the self-cherishing thought, those other disturbing unsubdued minds arise, accumulate the karma, plant the seed of karma on the field of consciousness; in the field of the consciousness, the seed of karma is planted; then the craving and grasping makes it stronger, like water and heat. Then as one takes rebirth in the narak realm, the stems of the sufferings arise. As one takes rebirth in the preta realm, the stems of the suffering of the preta realm arise; the tree of the suffering of the preta realm. Then same thing in the realms of animals, human beings, sura and asura; in all those samsaric realms, the tree of the suffering of that realm grows up. Like this one suffers in each realm.

In previous lives, with self-cherishing thought, one has accumulated karma such as stealing. After having finished experiencing the ripening aspect result, rebirth in the lower realm, in this life when one is reborn as a human being, one experiences the result similar to the cause, and one steals, even though in this life one was born as human being. Then many times one’s own material possession, passport and money got stolen. This is also experiencing the result similar to the cause.

Or when one is born human one is born where there is no rain—the crops are destroyed, there is no food, and so forth. This is the possessed result. If in the past life, with self-cherishing thought, one hadn’t accumulated the negative karma of stealing, one would not have experienced these problems in the human life. But because of self-cherishing thought and those other disturbing unsubdued minds, attachment has risen, then we accumulated karma, sexual misconduct, having physical contact with another person who was possessed by another people. Then due to this negative karma of sexual misconduct, after having finished experiencing the result, the ripening result in the lower realm, one was born as a human being, then experiencing the creating result similar to the cause. Again, without choice, without control, doing similar actions again, sexual misconduct, having contact with the person possessed by another person; creating the result similar to the cause, having these human problems, experiencing the result similar to the cause. Then the wife cannot control the husband; experiencing such problems like this, in this human life experiencing such problems. If one is the wife, cannot control the husband; if one is the husband, cannot control the wife, losing to the hand of another person. Things like that are experiencing the result similar to the cause.

If, with self-cherishing thought in the past life, one did not accumulate this karma of sexual misconduct with self-cherishing mind, one wouldn’t experience such confusion in this life, like these examples. With all the rest of the ten non-virtues, all the problems that one experiences in this life are the shortcoming of the self-cherishing thought. Whatever confusion we experience in this life, all are shortcomings of the self-cherishing thought. Either collected negative karma with self-cherishing thought in this life or in the past life. Even though Guru Shakyamuni Buddha and the numberless buddhas who received enlightenment, those great yogis such as Tilopa, Naropa, Marpa, Milarepa, Lama Tsongkhapa, and many of Lama Tsongkhapa’s disciples, received enlightenment, even though they were wandering with oneself in samsara, they were wandering with us in samsara, we were wandering together in samsara before, but they have received enlightenment, by renouncing oneself and cherishing others.

We are still left in samsara because of the mistake of always renouncing others and cherishing ourselves. From beginningless previous lifetimes until now, the mind has been completely empty, not having the slightest knowledge or realization of the higher paths, not having one single attainment, not having one single realization of these steps of the path to enlightenment. All that is the mistake of constantly following the self-cherishing thought; destroying the merits, the cause of nirvana and enlightenment, the future happiness and perfection, destroying the merits. Because of the self-cherishing thought, anger and heresy arise, they cut off, destroy the merits.

So, the self-cherishing thought is like the executor, is like the butcher cutting off the life of enlightenment, all the temporal and ultimate happiness, it’s like the thief who steals away the merits. Self-cherishing thought is the one that makes even this present life unhappy; as one meets different objects, the different disturbing unsubdued minds arise; the self-cherishing thought obliges. That’s how it makes the life confused, unhappy.

Even in this life one who has stronger self-cherishing thought finds it very difficult to get along with other people; in the family very difficult to get along, always there are problems. The person becomes in disharmony with everybody in the family, no friends get along with him, after staying one day together, they have to leave the next day, can’t stand being with that person; everybody criticizes that person about how selfish he is, causing bad reputation. Even in that person’s mind there is no peace, most of the time he is uptight. That person has more problems in the life, more confusion in the life; very difficult to find, very difficult to receive peace in the mind; very easy to find problems.

Then also, one who has very strong self-cherishing mind, wherever he goes, however much he tries to make friends, nobody gets along, the person gets fed up, even after a few hours, a few days being with that person, they can’t stand him anymore. Also it is very useful to think about when other people with self-cherishing thought hurt oneself, when they badly treat, renouncing oneself, cherishing themselves. When other people badly treat you with self-cherishing thought, when they say nasty things, saying bad or rude words that hurt one’s mind—how harmful it is to one’s own mind. So if, with the attitude of cherishing oneself and renouncing others, one badly treats other sentient beings, if one says bad words to other sentient beings, if one harms other sentient beings with self-cherishing thought, how harmful it is for other sentient beings’ minds. Check how other sentient beings hurt in the past times, how they hurt when they were giving harm to one, how it is harmful. By remembering this, using this as an example, you should not give harm to other sentient beings.

As long as one follows the self-cherishing thought, there’s no place to generate bodhicitta, so there’s no way to receive enlightenment. Also then, as it disturbs to generate the mind renouncing samsara, one cannot receive nirvana. Also it disturbs to practice Dharma, so it makes to not receive happiness and perfection in the future life. It’s very harmful. The self-cherishing thought constantly, constantly harms one, no benefit to oneself. It constantly gives harm, as long as it develops, the self-cherishing thought in one’s own heart.

So, since it is only the root of suffering, one should renounce the self-cherishing thought and replace it with the thought of cherishing others, as the thought of cherishing others is the root of all good things, the root of all happiness, all the perfections.

I think we take pee-pee break.

... of cherishing others. The total way, the total idea of how cherishing others, bodhicitta, cherishing others, all the happiness and perfection, the total idea, without talking much details, the short, condensed way to think, deeper way to think, not just when somebody helps you, how you feel happy, not just that; deeper way, to see deeper benefits of cherishing others.

When one meditates on the shortcomings of self-cherishing thought as I have been describing, it is a short, condensed way, how to meditate on short-comings of self-cherishing thought. Then on the basis of this, checking even in this life, how all the problems are caused even by the present life self-cherishing thought. Other one talked about past life, karmas collected with self-cherishing thought in the past life. Then, after one has meditated on the shortcomings of self-cherishing thought, how it disturbs the realizations, all those things, then very useful to think how all these problems are always caused by the present self-cherishing thought. It’s also very very effective, very clear way, it becomes very clear.

All the past, present, future, all the happiness one experiences, all the future happiness one will be experiencing while one is in samsara, and all the ultimate happiness, nirvana, enlightenment—all this happiness came from where? It came from Dharma, the virtuous karma. You see, in our mind accumulating virtuous karma, that itself is Buddha’s holy action; in our mind, in the minds of sentient beings, accumulating merit, cause of happiness. That itself is the action of Buddha. The cause of accumulating merit within our mind is dharmakaya; the self condition of this is dharmakaya, which is the Buddha’s holy mind, the dharmakaya. Then, also in this life, by having heard Buddha’s teaching, which shows what is the practice, what is avoidance, what is virtue and what is non-virtue. By understanding the teaching, one will accumulate merit, practice Dharma. Or one heard the teachings in a past life, they left much impression in the past life on the consciousness, so in this life, because of that, we accumulate merit, practice Dharma.

So, one way to think is that accumulating merit within one’s mind is itself the action of Buddha, caused by the Buddha’s holy mind, dharmakaya. Secondly, which is an easy way to think, this Dharma is received from Buddha, by depending on Buddha, by hearing and understanding Buddha’s teachings in this life, or by having heard teachings in the past life. Buddha came from where? Buddha came from bodhisattva. Before becoming Buddha, one has to become bodhisattva; one has to follow the bodhisattva’s path. So, Buddha comes from bodhisattva. Without having generated bodhicitta, there’s no way to become bodhisattva, so bodhisattva came from bodhicitta. Bodhicitta came from where? Bodhicitta came from great compassion; the great compassion, which views each and every sentient being. Great compassion is generated by depending on each sentient being, generated on the object of each sentient being. So, if one has great compassion for all the rest of the sentient beings, but one doesn’t have compassion for one sentient being, one sentient being is left out of the numberless, then that compassion is not great compassion, is not Mahayana compassion, not great compassion, if one sentient being is left out, renounced from the object of great compassion. Wishing sentient beings to be free from suffering, and besides wishing sentient beings to be free from suffering, wanting to make the sentient beings free from suffering by oneself—that is the definition of great compassion. So you see, object has to be every single sentient being, otherwise it doesn’t become great compassion.

Like this, without depending on the enemy, without generating compassion for the enemy... let’s put it this way, this way is easier: If there’s no enemy, there wouldn’t be compassion generated on him, so bodhicitta wouldn’t be generated. If there’s not this enemy, there wouldn’t be bodhicitta generated, so as there’s no bodhicitta, there wouldn’t be bodhisattva and there wouldn’t be any Buddha; if there’s no enemy. If there’s not this enemy, there wouldn’t be compassion generated on him, there wouldn’t be bodhicitta, there wouldn’t be bodhisattva, there wouldn’t be Buddha, there wouldn’t be Buddhas. And if there were no Buddhas, there wouldn’t be Dharma, and if there’s no Dharma, there’s no way to receive happiness. No way! There’s no for oneself to receive all the past, present and future happiness. No way! At all! No way to receive even the smallest pleasure—one mouthful, one spoon of water, the pleasure of that; cool air passing when one feels hot; even the smallest pleasure like that—no way! No way to receive it without Dharma, which all happiness has come from.

It doesn’t come from non-virtue; it comes from virtue, merit, Dharma. So all the happiness of the three times—past, present and future—the whole three-times happiness, temporal happiness and ultimate happiness, the whole thing is completely dependent on the enemy, the one who has ill-will towards to oneself. There’s not one single instance of happiness that one receives without depending on the kindness of the enemy. No way! There’s not the slightest happiness or pleasure.

So, that’s why the sentient beings, even the times when they’re not parents, they’re extremely kind constantly, they have greater kindness. One way when you think, they have greater kindness those times when they’re not one’s parents. Of course, when they’re parents, extremely kind, each time they’re parents, mother, but the time when they’re not parents, one way to think is that they have the greatest kindness, much more than the kindness they’re doing when they’re one’s own parents. For instance, if you think of the enemy, as I mentioned before, in the practice of patience.

The whole happiness, the whole past, present and future, temporal and ultimate happiness, everything, you can see now, came from bodhicitta, renouncing oneself, cherishing others; came from bodhicitta. The whole advantage that bodhicitta has, renouncing oneself, cherishing others, what is it? All these advantages came from “the lord,” the extremely kind sentient beings, who are kind all the time, the lord, the mother sentient beings.

So, each sentient being, each sentient being, how precious it is, how precious it is. The wish-granting jewel, after having cleaned well this jewel, praying to that on the special, full-moon day, then receiving all the material possessions; whatever perfection, whatever you need, by praying to that, very easily receiving in the hand. Millions of worlds piled with wish-granting jewels compared to the value of one sentient being—the enemy, the value of the mosquito, one flea, the value of that—how precious it is when you compare with the value of all these wish-granting jewels piled on this world, on this earth. When you compare the value, when you think how precious is the value of one sentient being, the flea, the value of that big pile of wish-granting jewels is lost, completely lost—no way to compare, it’s completely lost.

When you think of the value, how precious it is, the one mother sentient being, the flea. The whole three times happiness completely received by depending on it. Renouncing this from the objects of compassion, without this—no bodhicitta, no bodhisattva, no Buddha, no Dharma, no happiness, nothing, not one slightest happiness to receive in the mind of other. Also relating for oneself, without depending on this one flea, without depending on the kindness of this, no way to generate great compassion, no way to generate great love, no way to receive bodhicitta, no way. As long as one renounces this one sentient being, this flea, as long as one renounces this one sentient being, no great compassion, no bodhicitta, no bodhisattva, no six paramita, no way to complete the six paramitas, no omniscient mind; no way to receive omniscient mind if one renounces this one sentient being, without depending on the kindness of this one sentient being. So the value of the wish-granting jewel piled on this earth is nothing. So the sentient beings are the real gods, the real lords, the lord from whom one receives all one’s own happiness, perfection.

Property, land, if one has it—in the world, those people who have farms, fields, take care of the fields well. When there are crops growing the people always go to look around, they think the field is so precious because they receive crops from the field; they can plant and they can receive, so always they take care of the field. The sentient beings take care of material possessions, the field, property, those things, as one thinks of them as precious, as one receives the crops from the field, by selling the material possessions, one can receive money; seeing this advantage, people think they are precious, like jewels. The sentient beings field, from where one receives all the happiness, that one does not take care about, careless. One doesn’t take care. The sentient beings, the precious field from where one receives all the happiness, perfection, one does not take care of. Renounce. As the properties, the field, receiving one crop in one year, if for that reason it is so precious, so important—why not the sentient beings, who are the precious field from where one receives all the three-time happiness and perfection.

That is a short way to think, the total idea of the benefits of cherishing others, the total idea, without talking much details.

All this great, infinite advantage that bodhicitta, renouncing oneself, cherishing others, has is received by depending on the kindness of the sentient beings. All the advantage it has is by depending on the kindness of the mother sentient beings, each of them; the infinite advantage of bodhicitta, cherishing others. So therefore, for that reason, one should renounce oneself and cherish others.

As Kadampa Geshe Langri Tangpa said, “Take all the defeat on oneself, take all the loss, defeat on oneself.” Why? Why on oneself? Why? It is because all the suffering came from oneself. How it came from oneself? Actually we say delusion, we complain about the delusions, “Why I have problem, because of my delusion; my delusions are so strong, blah blah, blah, blah ....” We complain about the delusions, but actually, if one didn’t follow the delusions, if one did not follow the self-cherishing thought, if one did not follow the disturbing unsubdued mind, the problems would not be experienced; one wouldn’t receive the problems. The whole mistake is because one is following the self-cherishing thought, the disturbing unsubdued mind.

So actually, it is one’s own mistake, the whole suffering came from oneself. Kadampa Geshe Langri Tangpa says, “Offer the victory to others.” Why? Because all the perfection, all the good things come from others, from other sentient beings, so therefore, offer the victory to others. Take all the difficulty and suffering on oneself and offer the happiness to other sentient beings.

The details: if one is to meditate, elaborate on the kindness of the mother sentient beings, what is contained in the very first stanza of the eight is the way to meditate. It is an extensive, clear way to meditate on the kindness of mother sentient beings, which is much deeper and wider than the kindness of the mother, during the mother time how the sentient beings have been kind. This kindness, this way of thinking of the kindness is much greater.

In the first stanza, it says, “I will practice to cherish all the time, to cherish forever, to cherish all the sentient beings, higher than the wish-granting jewel, with the thought of obtaining the three great successes.”

That is the way, when you’re meditating on the benefits, when you’re meditating on the kindness, details of the kindness of the mother sentient beings, the great way, wider way, extensive, deeper way to meditate. It’s very good to meditate this way. By remembering the words, you meditate on the meaning of this, by elaborating.

By meditating well, the thought of renouncing oneself and cherishing others, if that is strong, the understanding of the shortcomings of the self-cherishing thought, understanding the benefits of cherishing others, if this is very strong, then also, what happens, the result is, then you see the actual practice, changing oneself for others becomes that much stronger, that much more pure, that much more sincere, that much more stronger. If the understanding of the shortcomings of the self-cherishing thought and the benefits of cherishing others is not so strong, if it’s small, then the actual practice of exchanging oneself and the others doesn’t become strong, one can’t do well.

After this the actual practice of exchanging oneself with others comes, the tong-len practice, taking other sentient beings’ suffering, dedicating one’s body and material possessions to others by generating great loving compassion.

Think, the mother sentient beings, being in the ocean of samsara, are constantly attacked, taken by the wave of disturbing unsubdued mind and karma through the six realms, up and down, nothing definite, always in a circle, chased by the wave, the disturbing unsubdued mind and karma. Always, constantly they’re attacked, the mother sentient beings, constantly they’re attacked by the three types of suffering, the pervasive compounded suffering, the suffering of changes and the suffering of suffering. Like the shark, like the animal that attacks human beings in the water, in the ocean, the sharks, the three types of water lying over the sharks, attack all the time, in whichever realm they go.

Constantly they’re attacked by these three types of suffering; they’re devoid of temporal happiness; even those who have little temporal happiness, who experience little, they’re devoid of ultimate happiness.

Think like this. Strongly generate bodhicitta like this. Think like this, “I must, I must take the responsibility to free all the sentient beings from all the sufferings, to receive enlightenment. I should do it by myself; to do that I must achieve enlightenment. Actually, for myself, if it benefits sentient beings, I wish to be born in the naraks the number of eons equal to the atoms of this earth, for the benefit of each sentient being. For each sentient being, even if I have to be reborn in the narak, suffer for that many eons, equal to the number of these atoms, for the benefit of each sentient being, myself, I am so happy to do that; for myself, it’s a beautiful path to be born in the narak, to suffer for the benefit of each sentient being for that many eons. But even one second that the kind mother sentient beings are in samsara is unbearable, their being even one second in samsara is unbearable for me. Not having achieved enlightenment, being in samsara—that is unbearable for me, I can’t stand it. So I must achieve enlightenment quicker and quicker and quicker and to do that I must generate bodhicitta, as quickly as possible.

In order to do that, without depending on a guide, without depending on a special deity, bodhicitta cannot be generated. The special deity in order to quickly generate bodhicitta is Avalokiteshvara, the great compassionate buddha, Avalokiteshvara.”

It is said, lamas usually advise, if one wishes to quickly generate bodhicitta, besides the meditation what one should do is one should practice the…

... besides the meditation on the lam-rim, bodhicitta, this is a method to quickly generate bodhicitta. This is kind of emphasized by the lineage lamas who had the experience of generating bodhicitta by meditating on the, by depending on the special deity, Avalokiteshvara. Also many times His Holiness the Dalai Lama said that if one wishes to generate bodhicitta, if one wishes to have good heart, then one must recite OM MANI PEME HUNG, this six syllable mantra as much as possible. When you look around, usually people who recite the six syllable mantra so much have very good heart. If you check, normally in the life other people, those who recite all the time this mantra and prayer, have very good heart. This is what I find when I check up like this.

So think. “Therefore, I’m going to take the blessing of Avalokiteshvara.” Generate a strong motivation like this, special bodhicitta. The meaning of the mantra I will explain after the blessing, the meaning of the mantra or how to think when reciting the mantra.

Just in order to arise a little bit of devotion to Avalokiteshvara; the Avalokiteshvara yoga, which is called nyung.nä, “abiding in the retreat,” which involves fasting, has many lineage lamas. The very first one is a woman, the very first of this lineage of the Avalokiteshvara yoga, one who has achieved Avalokiteshvara, one female bikshuni, Gelongma. I’m not going to talk about others, just this first one, how she achieved Avalokiteshvara.

Last year at Lawudo, when we were doing the retreat, I described how the lineage lamas achieved Avalokiteshvara, starting from her. I don’t remember if I finished all, but I think most of it is finished. Some people might have copies of that, I’m not sure.

There happened, I think in India, one called Gelongma Palmo. Her name’s Gelongma Palmo. She was born in the kings’ caste. When she was very young she didn’t have any attachment to the family, to the worldly life. When she was very young she became renounced being and she met many lamas who had great attainment and she studied all the scriptures, the tantra texts, all those things, she studied well. Then she took the higher ordination, the female full ordination, she observed them, she protected them purely, like the eye she protected well.

She received many initiations and teachings from the great yogi, Paksamwa, and she practiced tantra. Then after sometime, her previous karma is experienced; she got leprosy disease, her whole body became full of leprosy disease, then she got incredible pain to her body. Then she went to see King Indrabodhi, whom I mentioned, who received enlightenment in three years. “What to do?” He advised, the one who achieved enlightenment in one brief lifetime, Indrabodhi, advised her, “There’s one very blessed, precious statue of eleven-faced Avalokiteshvara in a place called Likkashinga (it looks like Swayambunath, but I’m not sure). The Great Compassionate One, he’s the one who can control the nagas and those other spirits who caused the disease. In that forest, there’s a six-syllable letter, which is a very precious one; you go there, you practice and you try to achieve the Great Compassionate One.”

King Indrabodhi advised her that. Then without being to attached to her family, all the relatives, material possessions, she went, she left to this forest to achieve Avalokiteshvara, and she prayed very hard to the six-syllable letter; it’s intuitive, I think, not carved.

No change happened. Then what happened, in the daytime she went to see the eleven-faced Avalokiteshvara, to pray. They don’t let women in the night time to sleep in that place because, I think it’s a monastery, they didn’t let her stay there. Then night time she came back to where was the six syllable mantra and she meditated there, she prayed very hard, then after a while, this six syllable mantra transformed into eleven-faced Avalokiteshvara. Then all her leprosy disease was recovered and she generated so many special, higher realizations; unbelievable, incredible loving compassion, she generated in her mind.

Then all this bad looking, kind of like rotten, very black, kind of like dirt, body looking, all this ugly part, completely transformed, completely gone away. Then her whole body became much more beautiful than before and she achieved unimaginable concentration. Then all the spirits and beings who disturbed her Dharma practice, she overwhelmed them with bodhicitta; she controlled them with bodhicitta. Then she made even the nagas (there are eight great nagas), she made them to promise to be the protector of Dharma, for one who practiced Avalokiteshvara yoga, to help, to look after. There are many stories like that. Then also she saw Tara, the female buddha, Tara and many other deities, many special other deities she saw in that place.

Then, on the Tibetan fourth month, the full-moon day, Avalokiteshvara has actually, previous one just transformed, you see, but now actually Avalokiteshvara actually showed his manifestation to her. Then Avalokiteshvara directly gave all the teachings and initiations to Gelongma Palmo, this nun and she generated many realizations, concentration, she became great yogini. Then she went in the center of the city, her body extremely beautiful, so clear, calm and clear, like a moon, very clear, well developed, very beautiful. So many people in that city criticized her that she has broken her precepts, she has broken her root vows, many people criticized her. In order to stop all the people’s heresy in their mind, what they have towards her, at one special time of Avalokiteshvara she went to the market and cut off her own head. She put her head on the spear, not a spear but some implement that the bhikshus carry, anyway, it’s kind of stick and it has three pointed prongs. She put her head on top of that stick, then she flew in the sky and she danced like lightning, she danced in the sky.

Then she told all the people in the market, “If I have broken the root vows, this head shouldn’t come back, shouldn’t stick to me. If I didn’t break the root vow, if I didn’t receive the downfall, breaking the root vow, may it be like before. May it come back and be like before.” She prayed like this in front of the people, while all the people in the market were watching her. Then, after she prayed like this, this head came back on her, became as before. Then she has shown many other psychic powers. Then all the people in the city who used to criticize her, all their heresy completely got pacified. Instead of heresy, they got incredible devotion, all those people were led in the stage of devotion. Then she gave many initiations, blessings to other lineage lamas.

Okay, stop here.