This glossary contains an alphabetical list of Buddhist terms that you may find on this website. Many of the terms now include phoneticized Sanskrit (Skt) as well as two forms of Tibetan—the phonetic version (Tib), which is a guide to pronunciation, and transliteration using the Wylie method (Wyl). Search for the term you want by entering it in the search box or browse through the listing by clicking on the letters below.

Glossary

All A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z

conventional refuge: conventional Buddha, conventional Dharma and conventional Sangha

Also called relative refuge; as opposed to absolute or ultimate refuge, the objects of refuge as known to an obscured mind. The conventional Buddha refers to the historical Buddha, Shakyamuni, and any other buddha, the conventional Dharma refers to three baskets of teachings—Vinaya, Abhidharma and Sutra—as well as the virtuous actions we do and conventional Sangha refers to any assembly of four or more fully-ordained monks or nuns living in pure vows who have yet to attain the state of arya being. Lama Zopa Rinpoche also refers to the conventional Buddha as "the Buddha that is true to the all-obscuring mind" or "illusory Buddha."

refuge

sharana (Skt); kyab (Tib); skyabs (Wyl)

The door to the Dharma path. Having taken refuge from the heart we become an inner being or Buddhist. There are three levels of refuge—Hinayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana—and two or three causes necessary for taking refuge: fearing the sufferings of samsara in general and lower realms in particular; faith that Buddha, Dharma and Sangha have the qualities and power to lead us to happiness, liberation and enlightenment; and (for Mahayana refuge) compassion for all sentient beings. See also absolute refuge, causal refuge, conventional refuge and resultant refuge.

resultant refuge: resultant Buddha, resultant Dharma and resultant Sangha

The potential of our own mind to achieve the absolute refuge, to become a buddha ourselves (resultant Buddha), to actualize the true path within our mental continuum (resultant Dharma) and to attain the state of an arya being (resultant Sangha). To achieve resultant Buddha, Dharma and Sangha we need to first practice causal refuge by relying on the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha already achieved by others. See also conventional refuge.