Kopan Course No. 08 (1975)

By Kyabje Lama Zopa Rinpoche
Kopan Monastery, Nepal, 1975 (Archive #089)

These teachings were given by Lama Thubten Zopa Rinpoche at the Eighth Kopan Meditation Course at Kopan Monastery, Nepal in 1975. The transcripts are lightly edited by Tsultrim Davis.

You may also download the entire contents of these teachings as a pdf.

Section Six: Lectures 26 to 30

LECTURE 26:  December 3, 1975

So before listening to the teaching it is necessary to cultivate the pure motivation, “I must lead all the mother sentient beings in the most sublime happiness. By myself to be able to do this, I must receive enlightenment first, therefore I am going to listen to the profound teaching on the graduated path to enlightenment. The listening subject is the Mahayana teaching which leads the fortunate ones to enlightenment. It is well expounded by the Nagarjuna and Asanga. It is the profound teaching, the essence of the great Atisha and the Dharma king of the three worlds, the great Lama Tsongkhapa, as he said in his precious teachings, called The Three Principal Paths to Enlightenment, ‘Even one has received the fully renounced mind of samsara, if that is not possessed by the pure thought of bodhicitta, it cannot become the cause of the perfect happiness of enlightenment.’”

What Guru Tsongkhapa is emphasizing is, just only having the renounced mind of the samsara is not sufficient. Even if one has that, it is still necessary to have the pure thought of bodhicitta. If the renounced mind of samsara is not possessed by that one, then it cannot become the cause of the perfect happiness of the highest, the buddhahood stage. Therefore, what Guru Tsongkhapa is emphasizing is the precious thought of bodhicitta, that one should keep the precious thought of bodhicitta in the depth of one’s heart. This means that the practice of the bodhicitta should be the main practice. Even though there are various Dharma practices, practice of other paths, but practice of the bodhicitta should be the main thing. “Should be kept in the depth of the heart” means the main thing. Like, for instance, even you may have thousands, hundreds of thousands of friends, but there’s one person that you keep in the, that you take in the most care, that you think the most time, that you keep in the depth of the heart. For instance, in working life, even the person has so many projects, so many works to do in the life, there’s the most important work, more important than other, than other projects, so the most important work, which is the most beneficial, most useful work. The person keeps that as the main aim, the main thing in the heart. Like that, the precious thought of bodhicitta should be kept in the depth of the heart.

So, in order to practice the precious bodhicitta, in order to understand and listen to the teachings, understand the meditation, in order to actualize the bodhicitta, it is necessary to follow the graduated path to enlightenment. Then, before listening to the teaching on the graduated path to enlightenment, necessary to cultivate the pure motivation, necessary to think, at least, “For the sake of all mother sentient beings I must receive enlightenment, therefore I am going to listen to the profound teaching on the graduated path to enlightenment.” The listening subject is the Mahayana teaching which leads the fortunate to enlightenment. It is well-expounded by great philosophers Nagarjuna and Asanga, and it is well-expounded, the profound teaching, the essence of the great pandit Atisha which was extracted by the Dharma king of three worlds, the great Lama Tsongkhapa through his infinite knowledge. And this contains all the essence of the 84,000 teachings shown by Guru Shakyamuni Buddha. All these teachings are set up for the graduated practice of one person to achieve enlightenment. This graduated path is the only path through past, present and future buddhas received enlightenment.

Then, the commentary on the graduated path to enlightenment has four basic outlines, the last one is graduated path how to lead the disciple of the actual teachings. That has two outlines, then, the last one is how to train the mind in the graduated path to enlightenment by following the guru. That involves two outlines, last one is how to take the essence with the perfect human rebirth, which comes in three divisions.

So just with a little emphasis, just to join those various meditations that you briefly went through, before explaining the part of the bodhicitta practice, the Mahayana meditation which is from the graduated path of the higher being, just briefly discussing from the subject where I stopped, the usefulness of the perfect human rebirth. Then just briefly going through, joining the different meditations. Then this perfect human rebirth is highly meaningful in three ways. How much it has been wasted by not trying to receive even upper rebirth, by not creating cause, how much we have been wasting the precious human rebirth by not obtaining the cause of receiving enlightenment, the ultimate happiness. How much we have wasting the perfect human rebirth by not following the methods which makes it highly beneficial every second, minute, hour, how much we have been wasting. Then, how have we been spending time, life? All the time after the delusions, following the delusions, all the time creating negative karma, which causes us be born in suffering lower realms, all the time. Which makes no difference between our actions and those of the animals, outside animals, creatures that are crawling around, no difference. This is what kind of life we have been having so far, since we were born until now, even though we have a human shape. This proves whether our life has been meaningful or not, by our thinking like this, one can clearly see this. By thinking like this, it’s very upsetting point, subject, very upsetting situation. It is not the case that this perfect human rebirth can be received again easily. That is something else which cannot be received again, it is extremely difficult. It can be understood how difficult it is to create the cause of the perfect human rebirth, by thinking how difficult we find, even one day, to keep precepts. How difficult we find that.

Then, this perfect human rebirth, that which is received once, this time, by opportunity, where we can obtain many essences. Then without taking essence, then passing life, life finishing, that is like coming in the jewel land then going back with empty hand without taking jewel. Besides empty hand without taking any jewels, it is like person who goes back from the jewel land with many debts. Then, instead of coming to get jewels, he plays many games and he lost so much, and then with much debt he goes back. Like this, by creating so much negative karma, instead of making meaningful, creating so much negative karma, then we go to another, we take another rebirth, we go to another realm.

Then, this perfect human rebirth that is received once, while we have this in our hand, before passing from it, before losing it from our hand, it is necessary to take care, to take in the most care, which means try to make it most meaningful as much as possible, by putting all the effort. Then, however, there are three different aims. Already we mentioned, however, the most beneficial, how to make the perfect human rebirth that is received once, how to make it most beneficial, that is training the mind in bodhicitta, that is the most, if you have questions in your mind, how to, there are many different aims, there are many ways to practice Dharma, then what is the most practical thing, what is the most beneficial thing, what is the most skillful way to use my life, then if you worry like this, if you have question like this, then the answer is, then put all the effort, the speech, body, mind, the whole thing in the practice of bodhicitta as much as possible. Even if you don’t have wisdom, you don’t have enough, even if your wisdom is not that much, you’re not capable to know many subjects, to know many things, to know many existence, even if you are a foolish person, even if you are an uneducated person, even a well-educated person, even a person who has reputation, even a person who doesn’t have reputation, even has bad reputation, whatever it is, the most skillful thing that is practicing the bodhicitta, dedicating the life, using the life in this way. That depends on following the graduated path to enlightenment.

And bodhicitta, not like this: In the museum there are so many things, so many rich things, jewel things, and you can’t take them all, just like taking some expensive thing from museum, taking one expensive thing out of that place, bodhicitta is not like this. Bodhicitta is name of one realization but there’s many, as you know, as you already heard, there’s many levels.

Following the graduated path to enlightenment. Then, people have questions in the West, “How to do? We want to practice Dharma in the West,” then, even after listening, even after one knows the different levels, different methods in the lam-rim teachings that explain all the different meditations, bodhicitta and all these things, even after everything went through, then still have questions, “What’s the most beneficial thing to do in the West? How to deal with problems? What easy Dharma practice can be done relating our problem, relating our life in the West?” Still, after, even went through all this. That maybe the person not really, the meditations, not really relating with his life, maybe it’s fault of that—graduated path meditations not relating his life. Then, however, there are questions like this.

Then, I think, my answer, way I understand, how much I can see, that is this. I think it looks like people expected the meditations from the graduated path to fit their way of life. There are no meditations which don’t become remedy to the delusion, which don’t become enemy to the delusions. So, maybe it looks like the person who asks like this is looking for, this is my own feeling, I’m just guessing, my own feeling, can be mistaken, is looking for a Dharma practice which is harmonious to delusion, which is friend of delusion. It seems to me like that, the person wondering, asking for Dharma which is friend to delusion, looks like seeking something like this, which is harmonious to delusion. So, that which face the delusion, which becomes remedy to delusion, that is kind of difficult, it seems like this. Then, however, if what you practice is not facing the delusion, if it is harmonious to the delusion, if it becomes friend to the delusion, that doesn’t become cause to pacify delusion, but friend to the delusion, to develop the delusion, then that is not Dharma. Even the person thinks it is Dharma, that is not Dharma. Even the person thinks he is practicing Dharma, it is not Dharma. However, there is no such Dharma. Anyway, my thought is, there is no such Dharma which is harmonious to delusion, which is friend of delusion. There is no such Dharma, no Dharma. There is no such Dharma like this.

Then, even if that person thinks that what he does, what the meditation or the things he practices, if it develops delusion, if it is harmonious to the delusion, because it develops delusion, because it doesn’t decrease the delusion, that method doesn’t have the function of Dharma, so it is not Dharma. Function of Dharma is protecting the person away from delusion. So however, there is definitely a form to Dharma practice. There are still two ways one can practice graduated path. By living an ascetic life one can practice graduated path, or one can practice graduated path by living in the social life, by living as a king, with that kind of life, living in that position, one can practice the graduated path. By living in the family, by having family life, one can practice the graduated path, one can practice the meditations, one can try to receive enlightenment. Trying to receive enlightenment, practicing the graduated path to enlightenment, does not depend on escaping to the mountains, like this, hiding in a cave somewhere.

Then, previous time, one of the king called Sangyal, then he asked Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, “Please give me a Dharma practice, something that I can practice as I am living in this position.” So Guru Shakyamuni Buddha explained him, by living in that position, what is the most beneficial thing, what is the most beneficial thing that he can do, what is most practical thing, most beneficial thing that he can do. Then Guru Shakyamuni explained him, this king, advised this king,”First feeling rejoiceful-ness. Then, second is bodhicitta, training the mind in bodhicitta. Third is dedicating merits. By having that, by living in that life, that kind of position, such incredible merits that one create. There is the chance for one to create incredible merits, that is the most beneficial thing, most beneficial Dharma practice that one can do.” Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, he advised these three things. Then like this, like Guru Shakyamuni Buddha explained to this king, also we can try to practice these three things, even though we have to live in such a country where there’s no influence of Dharma, where there’s no teachings, where you can’t hear teachings, even though you have to work every day, or even though you have, however, by just living in the family, there’s so many beneficial things, many practical things that one can do, many practical things. Then, however, the whole thing is just from this meditation, bodhicitta and those things that I just mentioned, how to dedicate merits, then from graduated path, following the teaching of the graduated path.

Then, feeling rejoiceful-ness, for instance, just example, which I didn’t mention before, like this. Since we were born until death-time, no matter how many we create merits, compared to even the merits that the bodhisattvas create in the half-day, even that much merits we cannot create, even if we work all the time. From our birth until death-time, we can’t gain that much merits, that amount of merits that is created by the bodhisattvas in the half-day, maybe half of a half-day, I’m not sure. But by just laying down on your bed, just laying down, relaxing body, whether even you are laying down at the beach, doesn’t matter—however, I’m just joking—the mind-action, how to make the Dharma practice such incredible purification, creating merits so easily, then, is feeling rejoiceful-ness. If you feel rejoiceful-ness all the sentient beings, the sentient beings includes ordinary sentient beings who has not received path, and then who have received, the followers of the path, who received path, and the higher beings. Generally, like this, there are five different types of beings, objects toward whom we feel joyfulness. Ordinary sentient beings who have not received path, then beings who have received path, of which there are two types. There are two Hinayana paths, the lesser vehicle path, there are two, pratyekabuddha path and sravaka path, the followers who have received those paths. Then, like this you can also think—the bodhisattvas, then buddha. However, just talking about bodhisattvas, if you create the merits since you were born until death-time, you can’t create even half the merits what the bodhisattvas create even in half of a day, but by just feeling the rejoiceful-ness toward all these living beings, from ordinary sentient beings up to buddha, then we easily, just in short time, we easily gain merit, as much as the bodhisattva created in half-day, that much merits we gained, very easily. There’s, like this, just a little bit of talk on that. Then, there are other stories also like this, other things.

Then, the second is bodhicitta, then dedicating merits. Dedicating merits is like this, like if you put a little drop of water in the ocean, then as long as the ocean exists, the little drop of water that you put in there, that you stored in the ocean does not finish. By dedicating merits to receive enlightenment for the sake of other sentient beings, the result of the good karma becomes unceasing, unfinishing. Then that causes you to receive enlightenment, and even after receiving enlightenment that helps you to benefit all the sentient beings, like this, that good karma has unfinishing result, like this, so it’s fantastic. Then there’s other, also other explanations, however there’s details to talk about. Then, this is just my emphasis, one emphasis.

Then, practicing bodhicitta. Actually, what makes the mind unhappy, that is the delusions, so therefore, without depending on, if you want to make the mind happy, without depending on a method that is remedy to the delusions, there’s no way, there’s no way to make the mind happy, no way to solve the problems, no way, if you really want to make the mind happy. So, then the bodhicitta practice, bodhicitta. Beside the rejoiceful-ness and dedicating merits, there is bodhicitta. In the bodhicitta practice there’s so many different ways to control the mind, with the technique of bodhicitta, with practice of bodhicitta, so many ways to control the mind, so many ways to control the delusions, so many ways.

Then, more explanations will come afterwards, when we practice, if it’s not finished in this life, then more explanations in the future life. These things important to keep in the mind, these things that Guru Shakyamuni Buddha explained to this king, I think it’s very important to keep in the mind and also to explain other people. We can also explain to other people like this, we can suggest, benefit. You benefit other people, if you can explain to other people, how to make the life beneficial. Then also, this is also bodhisattva’s action, how also you help other people, how to make the life beneficial. Then, brief like this.

[Pipi break]

Since one does not have any idea of bodhicitta, since one doesn’t understand bodhicitta, since one does not practice bodhicitta, one hasn’t received bodhicitta, since one does not train the mind in the bodhicitta, then, that person, those kind of people—no matter how much other knowledge they have, high psychic powers to see past, present, future lives and then very far things, to read other people’s minds, how to fly, then all kinds of amazing things, even the person knows all kinds of things, even with mind power, with certain mind power can destroy countries, without using any weapons, he can bend rocks, iron, things like that, without touching by his hand, there are various things like this. However, whatever knowledges, such as producing light from body, like this, none of them are the meaning of human life. Nothing of this is the meaning of the human life. Then, just putting the whole concentration in this, putting whole energy in this way, those kind of people—are wasting life, wasting the precious human life.

However, this useful human rebirth, receieved just one time, is so difficult to receive again, so try to make it meaningful as much as possible, try to get the mind closer as much as possible to the realization of bodhicitta, in this life. Try to get as much as closer, like this, totally talking. Then, that also should start right now, cannot be lazy and cannot delay to the next day, like this, because this one time received this useful perfect human rebirth is, doesn’t exist long, doesn’t last for a long time, it doesn’t last forever. First of all it doesn’t last forever because death is definite, then secondly, as death is definite, the Dharma should be practiced, what is the only useful thing at death-time is the Dharma, nothing is beneficial at death-time, only Dharma. Then, in among these, most practical beneficial thing is the practice of bodhicitta, in among the Dharma, then like this. That should be done right away, because the actual time of death is indefinite, not sure when it will happen, even though you believe that you will live for a long time. Always not sure, as it happens, life exists as you expect. So, the practice of bodhicitta should start as soon as possible, from right this time.

Also, then, another way, another suggestion, another way of putting, if you want to receive also bodhicitta as quick as possible, one thing is also making continual meditation on impermanent life and death, this is one essential method which cuts off delusion right away, and which makes also to receive bodhicitta very quickly, to receive enlightenment very quickly, totally, the benefits of this meditation.

Then, I think at the beginning of this course, just my story, nothing important. Just in one dream, beginning of the course, I think, because I am very lazy, I think that’s why—then, the point is in the dream, the one monk, two monks appeared, one monk was instructing to me, “If you make meditation on the impermanence of life and death, you will receive enlightenment very quickly.” The monk I don’t know, it’s an unknown monk. Then, in my mind, usually it’s not common thing, that by death meditation you can receive enlightenment very quickly. Usually, most people what they talk is tantra, Vajrayana, you can receive enlightenment quickly. Like this, then, those meditators who really knows the lam-rim teachings, they emphasize bodhicitta, like as I explained at part of Atisha time, the story. Then, in my mind in the dream, “Oh, receiving enlightenment quickly, usually from Vajrayana, then bodhicitta,” this is in my mind, I’m describing feeling, in the dream. Usually like this, kind of I never heard that, usually not directly say like this. You can think, you can understand by thinking the benefits of meditation, but not common sort of saying like this. So, incredible feeling came in the body, such kind of shock, kind of incredible feeling, his saying this.

Then I checked up, it’s kind of, at the end of the dream, even waking up after the dream, checking continuously, it’s true, it’s really true, what he said is exactly really true. I checked up, it’s really true, he’s correct, I checked. Because, you see, one reason is, without mind training in this meditation, without having realization of this, the mind is lazy. First of all, even though you like bodhicitta, mind is lazy. To receive bodhicitta, that needs a strong, renounced mind renounced of samsara, to receive that. At least you have to have realization of the impermanent nature of life and death in meditation, this is fundamental thing. So, through this, by having this incredible energy, person has incredible energy and in this way, person doesn’t get attached to happiness of this life, doesn’t get attached to the samsaric perfections, doesn’t get attached to the samsaric happiness, nothing of this. Very easy to control any delusion. So easy, like this, so easy to receive bodhicitta. So, even though the bodhicitta is the quick way, even though the bodhicitta is usually emphasized in the teaching as the quick way to receive enlightenment, if you don’t receive the realization of impermanent nature of life and death, if you don’t receive this, there’s no way to receive bodhicitta, impossible, there’s no way to receive bodhicitta, then there’s no way to receive enlightenment quickly.

So, when I checked like this, he’s perfect in what he said. Very true, very, very true. So this kind of meditation is something that we have to take every day, if possible, three times in the day, then however, as much as possible, if it is possible that one can remember, then, while one is eating, drinking, going, talking, whatever one is doiing, while one is doing job, as much as possible, however at least remember three times, four times, several times in the day. Especially, monks and nuns, like this, it is very important, very important. This is one of the biggest protections of the life, to keep away from the distractions. This is just, the reason why I mentioned this is just, perhaps you may pay a little bit of attention if I talk about dreams like that. Sometimes many persons, they like dreams. Also this is my experience, sometimes when I’m not lazy, I try to think a little bit of impermanent nature of life and death, and then also my experience is very benefiting, incredible.

Then also, at the death-time, nothing, body, possessions, the surroundings—I’m putting together merits, everything. At the death-time, nothing of this can benefit, it only disturbs. If one is attached, it only disturbs, it only causes problems at the death -time. Therefore, as it does not help at the death-time, only causes problems by being attached, therefore even from now, one should not be attached to one’s own body, one should not be attached to one’s own possessions, one should not be attached to surroundings, relatives, friends, any of these. Now, because why? Why now? Because death is indefinite, actual time of death is indefinite. That is why mind has to be trained not to be attached even from now. Then also, one should not be attached also societies, one should not be attached colleges, monasteries, one cannot be attached. Also, one is attached to the monastery, college, to society, things, that also cause samsara, that also binds you, that also keeps oneself in samsara. Therefore, if one doesn’t know that there’s also danger, person has to be aware, try to not be attached any of these things, necessary to train for the problem even from now. Then, that doesn’t mean one cannot benefit, that doesn’t mean one cannot help others, doesn’t mean this, that’s a different thing. Helping others, not to be attached is a different thing, not the same thing. Then many times also, monks who are attached to monasteries, by being attached, also reborn as dogs, reborn as the animals around there, around the monasteries, like this. Like this happened for many monks. Being attached to the place, things like this.

Then, after the death, as the mind continues, there’s a life continuity. Whatever karmas we have collected in this life have been mostly negative karma. Therefore, whatever result we are more likely to experience after, what rebirth we are more certain to experience after this life, that is according to the karma we have so far created, the karmas, which are mostly negative karmas. So, then, if we check up, it is almost definite that we will be born in suffering lower realms. Therefore, even though it is not, even though such suffering of the three lower realms, even though we don’t experience this now, we have to be aware of those sufferings. To be aware, to really feel that they’re unbearable, we have to meditate. Then, by understanding this, how it is unbearable, then, if one wants to escape being born in suffering lower realms, what is method? There is definite method. Before the death, there is definite method to not be born, to stop to be born in suffering realms. Then what is the method? That is refuge. The fundamental method, what is that? To save oneself from the suffering rebirth, what is that? That is refuge. Not enough just refuge alone, refuge to what? Taking refuge to what? To Buddha, Dharma, Sangha. Just refuge alone is not enough. For instance, the person taking refuge to judge, saying, “Please excuse me what I’ve done before,” telling, just telling like this is not enough. If you do it again, if you broke the law again, you do the negative things again, then again you have to be punished. So, the most important thing is what? That you stop the vices, you stop breaking the laws. Just like this, not enough just taking refuge, but what one should do after taking refuge, that is observing karma. Then karma comes, after the refuge, then observing karma, the karma subject comes. How the meditation joins each other, there’s a relationship, there’s like this. Then, the most important thing, the main method which saves one from the suffering realm, that is observing karma.

Then, even if one is not born in suffering lower realm, just that, being born in upper realm, that’s not sufficient, because you are still in suffering realm, still in samsara, so still one is not free. As one is still in samsara, one is not free from suffering. One should be released from samsara—samsara that I introduced little bit in this morning. However the skandhas are under the control of delusion and karma, and they connect one life to another life, circling. Samsara means to circle. The skandhas, circling, bound by delusion and karma, that is samsara. To be free from samsara, one should cut off the root of the cause of samsara. That is, the root of the samsara is the ignorance. So, what cuts off the root of the ignorance? That is by the wisdom of shunyata, wisdom realizing shunyata. However, just having the wisdom realizing shunyata, even though it can cut off the root of samsara, just that is not sufficient, not enough. Then, without having the bodhicitta, one cannot receive enlightenment, even one has the wisdom realizing shunyata. If there’s no bodhicitta, the danger there is, even the person has renounced mind of samsara, even the person has the wisdom realizing shunyata, the person goes in the lesser vehicle path. One doesn’t enter in the Mahayana path. In that way, the person receives only the lower nirvana, doesn’t receive the great nirvana, the enlightenment. So one gets stuck there, like this.

Also, in the teachings it is also explained like this. Even if one has received arhat stage by escaping from samsara for the sake of oneself alone, even then the purifying of the delusions, purifying the obscurations, it’s still not finished. Purifying the obscurations is still not finished and completing the realization is not still finished, even if one has received arhat for the sake of oneself. It is necessary to receive, to complete the realizations and to complete purifying the obscurations, receiving enlightenment depends on that. The completing of the realization is receiving and making complete purification of obscurations, that is, that means receiving enlightenment. That itself is receiving enlightenment. So, even for the sake of oneself, it is necessary to complete this, it is needed to receive enlightenment. And even for the sake of other sentient beings, even once one has received the arhat stage, it is like the armless mother whose child is taken by river. No matter how much the mother wants, even the mother has compassion to guide the child, to save the child from the danger, then doesn’t have perfect power, doesn’t have perfect understanding, also doesn’t have perfect compassion like buddha has also. So, therefore also for the sake of other sentient beings, to guide the sentient beings, like the example of child that is drowned by river, the sentient beings who are suffering in the samsara, to guide them, for the sake of them, it is necessary to receive enlightenment. Without receiving enlightenment one cannot receive the perfect power and understanding, perfect compassion. Then, in order to receive this, the principal cause, the main thing, is the bodhicitta.

So, I am just introducing a little bit. There are about eight, I think, the benefits of the bodhicitta. This is very useful also to write down if you want, useful for meditation to know the eight benefits, to examine the benefits, to remember in the meditation practice of bodhicitta. The first outline is the benefits, the second one is how to generate, how to train the mind in the pure thought of bodhicitta. Then, after that, how to follow the bodhisattva’s deeds.

Then first thing is that only bodhicitta is the door of the Mahayana path. Like this, to enter in the beautiful park, first you have to get tickets, to enter in the gate of the beautiful park, first you have to get ticket. Like that, without ticket, you can’t enter the gate. Like that, without bodhicitta received, no way to enter in the Mahayana path, no way to receive Mahayana path. That means no way to receive Mahayana path. Then, as the person has receieved the bodhicitta, has enetered the Mahayana path, then also the person is Mahayanist. As he has Mahayana thought, then person is also Mahayanist, at the same time. Otherwise there’s no way to become Mahayanist. Just having Mahayana texts, just having rooms full of Mahayana texts, just having rooms full of countless deities, things like that, doesn’t mean person is Mahayanist. Or the person is wearing red robes, that doesn’t mean Mahayanist.

So, whether the person is Mahayanist or not, becomes Mahayanist or not, that depends on, that is defined by, this bodhicitta. Then, if the person doesn’t have much of an idea of bodhicitta, hasn’t trained his mind in bodhicitta, has no idea of bodhicitta, then his being Mahayanist is like the artificial fruit. This is also important to understand, very good to understand. A person having no idea of bodhicitta, not practicing bodhicitta, no idea of bodhicitta, then no matter how much he knows Vajrayana teachings, no matter how much he makes retreats on deities, even a whole lifetime, no matter how much he does these things, no matter how much good concentration, firm concentration that he has, however, still there’s a danger to be born in suffering lower realms. There are many stories of what happened in previous times, many other meditators who don’t know how to practice lam-rim, then they make retreat on the Vajrayana deities, recite the mantra, make much retreat, then those who have renounced mind of samsara, who don’t have bodhicitta, then they entered in the lesser vehicle path, even though they are practicing the Vajrayana, even though they know the Vajrayana, following the deities’ yoga, the deities’ methods, then the person still fell in the lesser vehicle path.

Also happened like this. In India, one time, one deity was called the Yamaraja, and there was one meditator who spent much time making meditation on this wrathful deity, Yamaraja, but without having the fundamental realizations, the mind renounced of samsara and especially bodhicitta. Then, he was reborn as a hungry ghost, preta. Then he started to come to Tibet, when Atisha was coming in Tibet, he started to come to Tibet, this preta, hungry ghost. So Atisha, he dispelled, by making, by giving offering cakes, like offering present to him, to please him, to not come in Tibet and to not give harm to people. There also things like this that happened in Tibet, there happened many like this. Meditators who don’t know lam-rim, who do not practice lam-rim. There were two meditators, there were two mediators in the cave, I mean the hermitage, two meditators, one meditator died before the other one died. Both of them were making meditation on the wrathful deities, the methods, the yoga meditation. Then, they did not practice or understand so much the lam-rim, especially the practice of bodhicitta, and after his friend died he was reborn as, in the place called Pembo, the place where Lama Yeshe was born, there his friend, the meditator, was born again as preta, but in the manifestation of the deity. Because he meditated so much, he had so much interest, so much, but no bodhicitta, no mind renounced of samsara, nothing, only the Vajrayana technique, then, just concentrated on that, maybe he had good concentration, firm, however, then, he was born as a preta, such very fearful, such having fearful form, in the form of this deity which he used to meditate on before.

In Tibet, the monks make charity to the pretas, the hungry ghosts, the sentient beings, they make charity. They have special pujas, short prayers to do and these prayers, mantra, and they put in the fire, like burning incense, in the small pot they put fire, and then they put tsampa, or those other stuff, they mix with other things, butter and other things and they put on the fire and they burn it outside and they say prayer, mantras, like this, by this, somehow it allows, it gives permission for the pretas to enjoy as food, they can have, somehow. So, the other friend, who was not dead yet, he does like this every day. So every time, when the session, when this time happens, his friend making this charity to the pretas, burning the tsampa mixed with butter and those things, then his friend who is dead, born as preta, he come, every time, in that time, to eat, that is his food, the smell. Then coming there and waiting for that, his friend giving this, burning this food, like this happened. Then, how he was discovered is by those other meditators, highly realized meditators, they discovered.

However, if you don’t have bodhicitta received, no matter how much Vajrayana you know, controlling chakras, nadis, all these things, then how many hundreds of books you know, how much you can explain, no matter, still you are not Mahayanist. Still, he has no qualification Mahayanist, not Mahayanist. Then also, like this example, still person get born in suffering lower realms, no matter. By achieving this, through such as these Vajrayana techniques no matter how much psychic power one has, no matter how much one has magic powers, no matter how much one has, as it is explained in tantra, as it explains in the teachings, powers and mantras, incredible mantras—there are so many mantras that have power, there are so many various mantras that you can do so many things with, all kinds of things, so many mantras, by reciting, through achievement in tantra techniques, meditations, and then, through certain deities you can achieve certain powers, then do things, magic powers, many things. Also through mantra combined with certain elements, powers and elements you can do so many magic things—however no matter how much one has powers, then, that kind of thing—such as, there are five different types of psychic powers, five different types of foreseeing—even if one has such as these powers, all five different foreseeing, still, these things cannot save from suffering lower realms. Still, one is not Mahayanist. Still, if one does not have bodhicitta, one has not entered in the door, in the gate of the Mahayana path, one is still outside. There are many details to talk about.

Even if you can live for years without eating, still that is nothing, still that person, nowhere, that person is not entered in the Mahayana path. Even the person, like many times we get surprised, people, also in the West, they get surprised that person who live for years without eating, even twenty days, even seven days, kind of think good, and many people try it. They don’t really know, they don’t know benefit, they don’t know how to make it beneficial, even fasting, but just curious, and just to make story in the life, to tell other people that I did like this, just people, just they dedicate their life for that, suffer for that. However, even the person can do like this still not Mahayanist. Person like, there are some person who can sit in the fire and not be burned, those are still nothing. Many, many times in the West, the people they surprised, people walking on water, standing and walking on the water, without getting drowned, they think, “So precious, like more than enlightenment.” Anyway, this, I’m not sure.

Then I heard one time in Australia, I’m not sure whether it’s true or not, in Australia people call the Ma, the Indian name, maybe it doesn’t matter, Krishnamurti—I heard in Australia people asked him, invited him, he didn’t know, they just asked him, they invited him and asked him. After he came, there at the public place, then the public people asked him to walk on water. They wanted to see how he’s walking on water. I heard this but I’m not sure, I was told by someone. I think he didn’t know what the people expected before, the way I heard was sort of like this, he didn’t know what the people expected before he arrived there. So, when the people asked like this, then he left. I’m not sure whether it’s true or not, someone told me.

However, these kind of things, just with mantras, magic, just ordinary magic powers, you can do these things. There’s one, also if you have fish, fish-skin under the shoe, and there’s a certain mantra that you recite, if you recite that mantra, with fish-skin under the shoe, and if you use like this, if you walk on the water, you can’t get drowned. And there’s one bird, one special bird, I don’t know how to say in English the name of that bird, this bird is usually around in the sea, where’s there’s water, where there’s salt. Tibetan called cha-nga-ga. Then, if you have the fat of this bird and there’s certain mantra if you recite and you put under the feet and on the head, then you can fly, you can fly without other people seeing your body. There are many mantras, all kinds of things you can do, without need of very high realizations or things like that. However, in the teachings there are so many things like this, all kinds of things, explained by Padmasambhava, and there are many other explained by the Buddha, explained like this, in the teachings, in the Kangyur and Tengyur, these many volumes of texts. However, still, just with power of elements and with power mantra you can do like this. That still does not, that doesn’t do anything, doesn’t make life any better, it doesn’t save from the danger of the suffering rebirth.

Then, in the meditation in the afternoon, perhaps maybe you can, again make meditation on the twelve links, then while you are experiencing the seven results from the twelve links, think that, check that, whether you are in the lower realm, whether you are in upper realm, experiencing those six different types of suffering, eight different types of suffering, while you are experiencing the seven results of the twelve links, you try to understand like this. And the whole suffering, that is caused by, going back it is caused by the ignorance, which starts the twelve links. Like the whole suffering that is experienced with this human rebirth, whole suffering, the whole thing, starting from rebirth until death, the whole thing, also negative karmas created with this life, and suffering which has to be experienced in the future, the whole thing, that is caused by the ignorance which produced the twelve links of this human life, ignorance. Among the ignorance, the I-grasping, the I-truly holding. Then, when you come to this point, when you see this is enemy, when you see this is cause of suffering, this is the real enemy bothering to me, then that time, then again think it is the same problem that other sentient beings are suffering. Like this you think, then, being old, then, like you have been doing the limitless, the four limitless thought-training, like this you make the visualization, bringing all the suffering and especially all the ego-grasping, all these coming in the form of black fog and coming inside, then sinking into your ego-grasping, sinking, not keeping somewhere here, besides you, somewhere nearby you, not like this, not like collecting, like keeping money, not like this, but sinking into the heart, going in the heart, then into the I-grasping, sinking into that which feels “I,” into the very strong, the vivid or the concrete feeling, sinking to that. Then sinking into that, as you are visualizing sinking, just then concentrate, just watch, concentrate, that feeling of the I, the consciousness of the I.

I think that’s all.

[Ge wa di… Dedication prayers]

LECTURE 27:  December 3, 1975 (evening)


When you make the visualization taking other sentient beings’ suffering, has there been any feelings? Do you get any feelings? When you take other sentient beings’ sufferings, when you visualize or what reaction comes in your mind? What reaction comes from the I-grasping, the ignorance?

Student: Compassion.

Student: Uncomfortable.

Rinpoche: You have compassion, compassion arises? Extremely good. Compassion arises. Very good, you mean when you take other sentient beings’ sufferings, it generates stronger compassion, yeah? Yeah, yeah, very good. That’s the feeling what you get, yeah, yeah, very good. This is necessary. Then, one is uncomfortable, you feel uncomfortable?

Student: Yes, very uncomfortable in the heart.

Rinpoche: Yeah, that’s also very good. That’s also that’s very good sign, very good. Uncomfortable, kind of fear, [Yeah.] Doesn’t want. Don’t want to receive it, doesn’t want to experience it, doesn’t want, like that, isn’t it? Oh, that’s very good, good sign, sign of practicing meditation. That can happen. Then, what else does it show, besides feeling uncomfortable?

Student: Not to grasp at things.

Rinpoche: Who said? Not to grasp at what? Thinking what, at these other sentient beings’ sufferings?

Student: [unclear]

Rinpoche: The karma that what he created now, then?

Student: He thought his feeling was the result of some karma he had recently created.

Rinpoche: What feeling?

Student: Feeling not to grasp at things.

Rinpoche: You mean this is happening, this not to grasp at things, that’s happening at the same time when you feel uncomfortable at the heart, during this meditation taking other sentient beings’ suffering? Or you’re talking generally? Your general feeling?

Student: I’m not quite sure.

Rinpoche: Then?

Student: [unclear]

Rinpoche: You can take more two more momos.

Student: I took two at the end.

Rinpoche: Oh, I see. Momos doesn’t matter, you can take as much as possible [General laughter]. While there’s chance to receive momos. Mo-mos doesn’t cause to be born in suffering lower realms. Yeah, very good. Then, when you feel uncomfortable, what’s the feeling of this “I,” what is your view of the I, when you feel uncomfortable here?

Student: Unnecessary.

Rinpoche: Unnecessary.

[Student speaks, unclear]

Rinpoche: Oh, doesn’t matter, just you keep it in mind. You can put it in words, but then if one doesn’t consciously check up, then difficult to put in the words. However, then describing like this it takes much time, anyway.

It’s an interesting meditation, because this way you can recognize the difference between what you talk about ego and the actual ignorance truly holding the I. You can recognize, check up on that. There’s a chance that you can check up and find something like this at that time, such as this when your mind feels fear or uncomfortable, because you’re practicing the meditation and that’s how it happened, that’s the reaction of the ego, the ego, the ignorance truly holding the I, that’s the reaction of that. Then, at that time, there’s the ignorance, the I-grasping is a little but stronger, it’s more kind of vivid, it’s more kind of coming out, kind of not hiding inside, kind of exposed, so, if you carefully check up, then it’s easy to recognize. The point why I’m discussing is because of it helps to realize the shunyata kind of meditation includes many different things, and the bodhisattva’s practice itself becomes practice, becomes meditation on shunyata. Then, afterwards this can be discussed more, then as it comes in the third section, the practice of the bodhicitta.

Then, even if one has a realization of shunyata, still just that alone does not make one Mahayanist. Still one doesn’t become Mahayanist, even if one has realization of shunyata, still one has not entered in the Mahayana path. So, that’s the first benefit of bodhicitta, having entered in the Mahayana path, become Mahayanist, only by having bodhicitta.

Then second benefit of bodhicitta that is receiving name called “The Son of the Buddha.” In the text, it says “Son of the King” but king means Buddha, son means bodhisattva. Receiving name called “The Son of the Buddha,” that is the second benefit.

Like this, as the great bodhisattva Shantideva said in his holy teaching Following the Bodhisattvas’ Deeds, “If the bodhicitta is received, just for one second by the fated sentient being who is bound in the samsara prison, then at that same time, same second, he received the holy name, is called, “the son of those who passed in the most sublime happiness,” which means the Buddha, “most sublime happiness, enlightenment.” So it means, passed in the most sublime happiness, that means who received enlightenment. That’s just translating straight from the, literally translating from the text. Then, who are called “The son of the buddhas?”

Then also, whenever the bodhicitta is received, then all the buddhas, they are extremely happy, just like the parents receiving something, giving birth or something like that, they expect, they wish for a long time, they wish, they expected for a long time to have son, they missed. They expected for a long time to have son, then one time receiving son. So, example like this, all the buddhas who are living in all the directions, they are extremely happy. Then, all the buddhas call “the son of the buddhas.” They think, as they are so happy, they think of the bodhisattva who received just now the bodhicitta, they think of as their son. For instance, the king’s son, the son will take the place of the king, and also perhaps he can work, he can benefit for the population. The buddhas are extremely happy. Then, besides bodhisattvas calling “the son of the Buddha,” then thinking like this, following like this, then also the bodhisattva, since he received bodhicitta, he works, he helps other sentient beings to release from suffering, and it helps to obtain the buddhas’ wishes. Like this, this is one thing which makes the buddhas extremely happy. Also all the other bodhisattvas, they all think as a brother, working for same purpose, same thing as me, then also they think as a brother. Then, no matter how ugly he looks, no matter how black he looks, not being white, no matter how ugly he looks, how dirty he looks, how poor he looks, whole his body is full of dirt, looks never washed in his life, never touched water, sort of like that, full of smells, having long hairs comes down to the feet [Rinpoche laughs, general laughter], then outside looking crazy like this, however, besides human, even a dog, even dogs, pigs or donkeys, besides human beings, even those animals, if they receive bodhicitta, then they become Mahayanist, they entered the Mahayana path, they received the name “son of the Buddha,” just in that second, just by receiving bodhicitta, they become holy being, just in one second.

Then other person who is looking very white, and looks no dirt on the body, every day, three times, four times washing, then, body wrapped with the expensive clothes, then feet never touch on the ground, always going in a vehicle, then always enjoying the object of the senses that the poor people cannot get, cannot buy, however, same as I said before, no matter any other knowledge, no matter whatever knowledge, no matter how the person is educated, no matter how much he is well-known, then even though he is expert in all these five great knowledges, even received realization of shunyata and completely finished the delusions, for instance the arhat, even those beings, arhat, incredible, unbelievable knowledge that they have, finished the gross delusions and this, even the root of delusions, out of samsara, but they still don’t receive the name “the son of the Buddha.” Still not in the level of the Mahayanist. That’s how receiving the precious thought, bodhicitta, taking more care for others than oneself, how it makes difference, in such one second, it’s like this.

Then, whenever the bodhicitta, taking more care for others than oneself, whenever this is received, whenever the person receives bodhicitta, it shakes the earth, it has such power that it shakes even the earth, the thrones of the buddhas. As this earth exists by the general karma, the group karma, the general group karma created by the living beings who are on this earth, the one who has received bodhicitta that he has power to lead many sentient beings from samsara, he has the power to shake the samsara. Such benefits and such power like this, because of the vibration of that power, the earth shakes. Also in the previous times there happened, when the lamas were giving lam-rim teachings, there happened also previous times very highly realized lamas, when they were giving lam-rim teachings, also followers receiving bodhicitta and shaking the place, these things happened in previous times.

Then, also, the lamas, the meditators, those great meditators who received the lineage of the graduated path, they prefer, instead of having all these five fore-knowledge, these various magic powers, the psychic powers, having all these powers, they prefer just having even just the intellectual understanding of the lam-rim meditations. The lineage of the teachings and those very highly realized meditators, they prefer just having the intellectual understanding of the lam-rim meditations rather than having all the five fore-knowledge, the foreseeing knowledge and those very high magic powers.

The reason is, one Kadampa geshe, I don’t remember his name, one is called Geshe Chengawa, other one, Kadampa followers, the followers of Atisha, one is Geshe Chengawa, other one is I’m not sure. One asked to one geshe, one meditator asked to another meditator, “What would you prefer, what would you choose, to follow the graduated path and receive bodhicitta, and then having achievement of these eight—there are about eight siddhis, eight general realizations—or having all these five fore-knowledge, the magic powers, the unshakable, firm concentration, the one-pointed meditation, unshakable, which lasts for one month, year, nothing can destroy, unshakable, no matter whatever noise, even jet, whatever noise around there cannot disturb the concentration. What would you prefer?” Then this geshe told, I think Geshe Tsultrim, I’m not sure, who gave answer, “Besides actualizing the graduated path and the bodhicitta, I would prefer mind facing,” which means mind paying attention, mind directing to try to understand the teaching on the graduated path, mind just directing, facing to that, not backwards, directing to try to understand, just mind facing to that, just, “I would much prefer, just even not actualizing, even not understanding, having the intellectual understanding, even just mind facing to the teaching of the graduated path, I would prefer this much better than having all these other eight siddhis, eight realizations, those general realizations,” and that includes many things, that includes many other realizations, general common realizations. Then those five different types of fore-knowledge and all these magic powers. Then he answered like this, that is his wish, the knowledge that, the benefits what he can see.

Because such this power of mind to see very far things and to remember past, future lives, and these things, and magic powers to go from one country to another country, right away, in a minute to get there, without any resistance, even when you are, you achieve these without need of meditation practice in this life, just by being born in the intermediate stage, after the death, intermediate stage. That sentient being has karmic power like this, without need of meditation. As he thinks, can reach at the place, without any resistance, just a minute, second can get there, without any resistance. The intermediate stage beings has much power, has much karmic power, and doesn’t have body like this, very ordinary body. Also having the fore-knowledge to see things, also in the naraks, in the sura realms, also in those also there’s karmic power, that, before suffering, like in naraks, just before happening, just before appearance of that particular suffering, vision of that particular suffering, that is caused by previous karma, certain specific karma, just before the being starts to experience, karmically he remember such karma he created before. Right after he remember this, this flash came in the mind, then the vision of the suffering appears there, just there—it changes from other one, it changes from the other vision of the suffering which he was suffering, which he was experiencing there, it changes, because the karma is ready.

The third outline is “controlling.” By receiving the bodhicitta, taking more care for others than oneself, this precious thought, one also controls the arhats—the pratyekabuddhas and the shravakas, the arhats, by the caste. Just like the example the most expensive jewel in all the possessions, in all the material, that controls all other possessions, such as gold, such as silver, all other different types of jewels, all other materials, it controls. Why? Because of the value of that jewel, because that jewel has the most value in the possessions, so that’s how it controls others.

In other words, as it explains in the teachings, that the king’s baby, the son, even though it’s baby, so small, even the baby doesn’t have any education yet, as those ministers, doesn’t know even alphabet, many things, but no matter how much the other ministers, other people, no matter how much they are educated, no matter how old they are and educated, this young baby, the teensy baby, controls by the caste, because the king’s baby, by the caste, controls even those other ministers, those who have much knowledge. Like this, once the bodhicitta, the precious bodhicitta, taking more care for others than oneself, once this is received within one’s mind, then no matter how many are the followers who received shravaka path and the followers who received the pratyekabuddha path, those lesser vehicle paths, also the arhats who completed the path, no matter how much there is, how many number or arhats there are, then the person, the living being who has received bodhicitta, he controls all these, by the caste, that is because of the power of the bodhicitta, the value of the bodhicitta which the followers of the lesser vehicle path, the arhats, they don’t have.

Then, details talking is this. What they don’t have is the great will. What is missing to them is the precious bodhicitta, taking more care for others than oneself, however, the great will that, “I, by myself, only by myself, make each of the sentient beings to be released from all suffering and to lead to enlightenment, the most sublime happiness, enlightenment.

[Looking at the clock] This, I looked at it before, it’s like this, now it’s same thing. Maybe it’s permanent, it’s permanent watch. By looking at this watch you don’t have to practice Dharma.

This great will they don’t have, this is what is missing. Generally the wish, just wishing, just wishing for the sentient beings to be happy and to be released from suffering, that wish they have. The difference is, just a little bit clarifying, it’s not the arhats, it’s not like this that the arhats they absolutely absolutely never have compassion for other sentient beings. They have much more greater compassion than what we have. Our, compassion that we have for other sentient beings this is nowhere. If you’re going to look at the arhats, those followers, their compassion for other sentient beings, our compassion is nowhere, lost. Then, however, little bit clarifying, they have compassion, they have the compassion wishing all sentient beings to be devoid of the suffering and to be happy, to be in happiness, this wish they have, the numberless sentient beings, wishing to be devoid of suffering and to be in happiness, this they have. What is missing, what extra thing the bodhisattvas have, the most precious thing, this is most difficult thing, most precious thing that the bodhisattvas have, that is the great will. Taking the whole burden on oneself, on one’s head. Even though the sentient beings, whom you should make devoid of suffering and lead in enlightenment, are numberless, the whole burden, whole work, taking on oneself, on one’s own head. This great will, this quality of the mind, this makes the difference.

Then, some people say the difference between the arhat and the bodhisattva is that the arhats don’t have bodhicitta to all, to numberless sentient beings, they don’t have compassion to numberless sentient beings, they don’ have love to numberless sentient beings, and bodhisattvas have compassion and love to numberless sentient beings. Some people think like this, the difference they make is like this, between the arhat and the bodhisattva’s compassion and love, but it is not like this. The main difference is by the will.

Then, person who has received bodhicitta, then no matter, even though he doesn’t have good property, beautiful property, beautiful gardens, even he doesn’t have many surrounding even he doesn’t have much possessions, no matter how poor he looks, no matter how terribly poor he looks in the samsaric possessions, since he has received, since he has the knowledge, the bodhicitta is received, the precious, the love and compassionate thought, bodhicitta is received, then he’s the most rich person, the real rich person.

Then, by having this realization, it stops all the samsaric poverty, samsaric looking poor, poverty. However, this precious thought of bodhicitta, which is the essence of the 84,000 teachings shown by Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, which is the main thing, the essence. That is the bodhicitta. Also, then as Atisha instructs, usually instructs like this, “Renounce this life and train the mind in the love and compassionate bodhicitta,”this is what usually Atisha often instructs to people.

[Ge wa di… Dedication prayers]

LECTURE 28:  December 4, 1975 (morning)

As said by the bodhisattva Shantideva, “I prostrate to the holy body, I prostrate to the holy being who has received the precious holy bodhicitta, to his holy body.” I think this way better, “The holy being who has received the precious holy bodhicitta, to his holy body I prostrate. Even one who has harmed, by making relation to the happiness, to the object from where the happiness arises, to the object from where the happiness comes, I take refuge.” This is very effective teaching which explains the knowledge of the bodhisattvas, very effective to the mind to hear the knowledge of the bodhisattvas. “The holy being who has received the precious, holy bodhicitta, to his holy body I prostrate.” Then, “even he, one who has harmed, making relation to the happiness, to the object from where the happiness comes, I take refuge.” This is very interesting also.

Then what Shantideva is trying to explain, that is, because such being who has the precious, holy bodhicitta, that holy body is worthwhile, it’s a worthwhile object to prostrate. Generally holy, why these bodhisattvas are holy, and object, why he is worthwhile object to prostrate? Generally talking, there are various meanings of “holy.” I’m not sure whether in the West there is clear definition of “holy” but however in the Buddhadharma there are various meanings of “holy”, depending on level of the realizations that is received. By not having the thought clinging to the happiness of this life, by renouncing this, by not having that, renouncing this life, in that way, one way becoming, what makes to become “holy.” Then secondly, by not having the I-grasping, the ignorance, by not having this, having the wisdom realizing the non-self, the emptiness of the self, that makes the person “holy.”

This “holy,” what is that is used by Shantideva, “one who has the precious, the holy bodhicitta,” this “holy,” this bodhisattva, why “holy”? He doesn’t have the self-cherishing thought. By renouncing, by not having the self-cherishing thought, then having the precious holy thought, taking more care for others than oneself, this is the thing that makes the bodhisattva to become holy, more holy than one who has renounced this life, just the renounced life, one who has just the realization of just renouncing this life, not having clinging to the happiness of this life. Then higher, such this “holy,” the bodhisattvas they are higher than one who has only, one who doesn’t have bodhicitta, one who has the realization the wisdom realizing non-self. Bodhisattva is more holy than that holy person who has just the realization, who has just the wisdom realizing non-self. Like this, there are also holy, two kinds of Vajrayana practice, the one who is, one who doesn’t have impure projection or conception, impure view, that is “holy.” That is holy by having the pure, only the pure projection or the pure conception and the pure view. Like the great yogis who has achievement of very high Vajrayana realizations, such as the enlightened beings. Buddhadharma explains various “holy,” various definitions of “holy” like this.

The such holy being the bodhisattva, having the precious holy thought, bearing all the burden, all the job, all the burden to release all the sentient beings and to enlighten them. If that being, who dedicates himself completely to others, if such that being is not object of prostration, if that person, such being is not object of prostration, not object to take refuge, then who else? Such a being who has such this holy, precious thought.

Then the second quotation is a very interesting thing, the second one: “Even he has harmed, then making relation to the happiness. To the object from whom the happiness comes, I take refuge.”

That is this, then, there is taught like this. There’s a thing like this—even if you give harm to bodhisattvas, even if you have made, even you have created negative karma with the bodhisattvas, let’s say negative relationship you made with the bodhisattvas, with such this holy being, usually like this, it’s recognized good, how, even you couldn’t make with the bodhisattvas, with such holy beings, even you couldn’t make good relationship with them, still there’s benefit, worthwhile to make, at least, still it’s worthwhile, beneficial that to make, at least to have negative relationship with the bodhisattvas. Why? That is, it’s better to have a relationship with the bodhisattva than not having any relationship. It’s better to meet the bodhisattva, than never meeting the bodhisattva, never making relationship. Never meeting the bodhisattva, that doesn’t plant the seed, that doesn’t create the karma to meet the bodhisattva again in the future lives. In that way, one doesn’t create any karma, any seed to meet, to have contact and to meet again the bodhisattva in the future life. So, at least, even if you can’t make good relationship with the bodhisattva, at least even you left bad relationship, negative relationship with the bodhisattva, however, even if you harmed to the bodhisattva then, as it says in the teachings that making relation to the happiness—that means, there can be many reasons, there can be various reasons—bodhisattva himself, instead of getting angry, as he’s living in the practice of the paramita of patience, instead of getting angry, bodhisattva he would, the other person who give harm to him, that would be only object of his compassion, and that person becomes only object of his praying, his praying to quickly release from samsara, from the negative karmas, to receive enlightenment soon. So the bodhisattva, even though he is harmed by other person, no matter how much he is harmed by other person, then those other living beings, beating with the body, criticizing with the mind,scolding with the speech, how much harming like this, from the side of the bodhisattva, those other living beings, it only becomes object of their compassion, to rise more stronger compassion, as they’re more suffering, can be like this.

Also, as there has been relationship met each other, then also the bodhisattva prays, he makes prayer, so if the bodhisattvas prayed, they have such precious thought of bodhicitta, so if they prayed, also it’s very quick. Like, if they prayed for us, if we’d given harm, like this, and they prayed like this, precisely for us, like this, then also it’s very quick to obtain, to bring the success of the prayer, because of the power of their realization, their great will. It can be also thinking like this, “making relation to the happiness.”

“I take refuge to the object, the holy being from whom the happiness comes.” Then, at least even such relationship, by having made, by having let such a negative relationship, that, then, somehow it createss the karma so in the future life, karma is created to meet that bodhisattva again in the future life. Again there’s contact with the bodhisattva, maybe you receive teachings, then possible to hope good relationship, to meet again and again. In that way, also one creates good karma, creates much merit, which becomes cause of receiving bodhicitta. Then, in that way also, one receives enlightenment. It is, however, from the holy being from that the happiness comes. Then, besides this, explanation of this quotation, “from this holy being, happiness arises, happiness comes”—this means all happiness. Generally, another way explaining “all the happiness” is that there’s no one single happiness that doesn’t come from bodhisattva. There’s no one single happiness that we have that doesn’t come from bodhisattva, not one single happiness. Anyway, this quotation contains also that explanation, which comes in other, which comes maybe in the benefits of bodhicitta. However, “I prostrate”—like this.

Then, the knowledge of these holy beings, bodhisattvas, that is mainly because of the precious holy thought of bodhicitta, so it also has the power to benefit that much to the sentient beings. So, to copy, to be like, to become like the bodhisattva, to be able to benefit skillfully for all the sentient beings and to receive enlightenment for the benefit of other sentient beings, whole thing depends on receiving bodhicitta. That depends on following the graduated path, so before listening to teaching on the graduated path, necessary to cultivate the pure motivation, then necessary to think, “For the benefit of all the extremely kind mother sentient beings, I must receive enlightenment; therefore I’m going to listen the profound teaching on the graduated path to enlightenment.”

So, the listening subject is the Mahayana teaching that leads the fortunate one to enlightenment, and is well-expounded by the great charioteers, Nagarjuna, and Asanga, and it is the profound teaching, it is the essence of the great pandit, the Atisha which the Dharma king of the three worlds the great Lama Tsongkhapa extracted thourgh his infinite knowledge. It contains all the essence of the 84,000 teachings shown by Guru Shakyamuni Buddha. All these teachings are set up for the graduated practice of one person to achieve enlightenment. And this graduated path is the only path which past, present and future buddhas have received enlightenment.

The commentary on this graduated path to enlightenment has four basic outlines, the last one is graduated path how to lead the disciple of the actual teaching, that has two basic outlines, how to train the mind in the graduated path by following the guru; that has two outlines, last one is how to take the essence with the perfect human rebirth, and that comes in three divisions—the last one is the graduated path of the higher being, or Mahayana path.

Then fourth benefit of the bodhicitta, that is becoming the sublime, becoming the best object of offering.

Then, as the great bodhisattva Shantideva said in his teaching, the last word, the quotation that I explained, the second part of the benefits, receiving name ‘The son of the beings who passed in the most sublime happiness,” then, the last part of that quotation. Any ordinary sentient being, no matter how poor he looks, how terrible, how ugly he looks, even the animals, those non-human beings, just the time as they receive bodhicitta, just in that time, they become the object of prostration, the offering of prostration, of the worldly beings—the suras, asuras, the human beings, all the worldly beings. Also as Shantideva said in the teaching, it becomes the object, it becomes the worldly gods’ and human beings’ object of prostration. Just in one second, if the bodhicitta is received.

Then, also in the teachings it is said, “Even the dust where the bodhisattva walked, on the road where a bodhisattva walked, where he put his feet, that footprint, that dust which has got footprint, even those dust, even the atoms of that dust, becomes the object of prostration for the suras, human beings.” It becomes object of their prostration. Even those, the universal king, such as the kings of the suras and asuras, even the dust which has got bodhisattva’s footprint becomes object of their prostration, they prostrate. It’s the power of the precious thought, the bodhicitta, taking more care for others in than oneself.

So, however, spending whole life, such as three year retreat, three year-three month-three day retreat, things like that, whole life making retreat, reciting mantras, living in silence, in the caves, not talking other people, not coming out, not eating, even though many people put energy like this, even those things what they trying doesn’t have that much value or doesn’t have as much benefit as bodhicitta has, as the practice mind training in the bodhicitta has. Therefore, it’s much more worthwhile to put, to experience, to bear the difficulties, no matter how much difficult it is to train the mind in the bodhicitta, no matter how long it takes, no matter how difficult it is, it’s greatly worthwhile, beneficial, more worthwhile than those other things. The mind training in the bodhicitta, it’s much more worthwhile. It is something that, no matter how long it takes, how many lifetimes it takes, by thinking of the benefits of the bodhicitta, it is something that one should take as a project. One should make the decision, a project, to concentrate until you achieve this, just concentrate on that, putting whole energy in that. Like the architect, when he has a project, job, build maybe a supermarket, big building, very complicated, big building, then, until he finishes his whole project, his whole concentration is there, is on the big building. Day and night what he thinks is, “How is the building, how to make,” so many things he think, so many things. “If I do like this, what would the people think? What would other people would think?” With, also with worries that, “People will blame me, criticize me, people won’t offer me good name, good reputation.” However, his concentration is only in that, day and night worried, even evening time, laying down, working. Anyway, this I’m joking! Then, like people should do like this, like this example. It is necessary to keep our concentration in the practice of bodhicitta, even though it takes lifetimes. Not just one lifetime, just only taking one lifetime is very short, that’s very quick, so quick, incredibly quick. Receiving bodhicitta taking only one lifetime, if it can be received in just the next life, just the coming next life, it’s so quick, very quick. Pipi time, thank you.

Even the buddhas, they respect bodhisattvas. The bodhisattvas, they have not received enlightenment, not achieved infinite knowledge of holy speech and body, mind as a buddha has, the bodhisattvas have not achieved, but even the buddhas, they respect, they prostrate, they respect the bodhisattvas.

Even the Buddha himself said in the sutra teachings that, “One who devotes to me, they should prostrate to the bodhisattvas, not the buddhas.” Then like this, the bodhisattvas, by having received this precious thought of bodhicitta, taking more care for others than oneself, these bodhisattvas, they are living in the horse-cart, they want to sense pleasures, they want to enjoy sense-objects, like for sight-seeing, to see things, to have sense pleasures. Then, even though the bodhisattvas want to enjoy the sense pleasures, then living in the horse-cart—the cart, the vehicle that is made of wood and then the horse pull it. I know the spelling, but I don’t know the accent—c-o-a-r-t, isn’t it? [Student: C-a-r-t]. Oh, I see. Great mistake. Anyway, even though the bodhisattvas want to enjoy sense pleasures, then living in the cart, and then no one is pulling, no one helps the bodhisattva to pull the cart, for enjoying the sense pleasures, then Buddha said that he himself would pull the cart for the bodhisattva to have the sense pleasures It is said like this in sutra teaching.

Even the arhat, for eons, eons, even though they are in the concentration, in the blissfulness, that everlasting happiness, everlasting happy state, blissful state, the buddhas, they don’t respect the arhats, because they don’t have the bodhicitta received, the bodhicitta taking more care for others than oneself. There are also other stories to talk about, anyway, not necessary to talk much.

Then the fifth one is completing quickly the collections of the two merits. Two merits, that is the merit of fortune and the merit of transcendental wisdom. The true path that is divided in two, the path to enlightenment is divided in two, method and wisdom. So by practicing method, one collects the merit of fortune. By following the wisdom path, by practicing that, one collects the merits of transcendental wisdom.

One Kadampa geshe, his name is Nyu-gyun-pa, one Kadampa geshe said, “If one has received this precious bodhicitta, just by having that, it collected the merits, just by having that, it also purifies the obscurations, also distractions of Dharma practice, distractions of the life. There are many distractions which also get dispelled just by having the bodhicitta.” It is talking his own experience, the Kadampa geshe, the follower of Atisha, as he has received the precious bodhicitta, he is talking with his own experience.

Then, in regards to that, how does the bodhicitta, just having the bodhicitta received, how does that make one to immediately gain such wide, infinite merits? As Shantideva said in the teaching, like this, “The best color, like the best color which turns into gold, changes into gold, by checking this impure body, it becomes priceless jewel, the holy body of the king.” “Holy body of the king,” that means a buddhas’ holy body. “Therefore, firmly hold the bodhicitta, therefore firmly hold the thought called bodhicitta.” Shantideva is explaining the benefits of the bodhicitta. Just like through certain meditation practices, there is a way to turn iron into gold, it makes the iron, no longer iron, it becomes gold.

So, like the Nagarjuna, the great, highly realized being who has the achievement of the undying life, he obtained also this method. Then he build many monasteries, and he made much charity to many thousands, thousands of the starving and the suffering people in India during those times. So Nagarjuna he did like this, by obtaining this method. So like this, this is just example.

Generally, gold and iron, generally the black thing, the iron, and the gold, in the value, for the gold there’s no comparison for the iron. Like this, our present body is very impure body, it is made of impurity, it is full of impurity. Then, this body, which is only full of impurities, if it’s looked at, then nothing pure, just bone, blood and the flesh, then skin, then inside the bones, the marrow, these things, if it is checked, nothing is pure. But the bodhicitta can make, can turn, can change, can make, the bodhicitta can finish this impure body, can make no one single atom from this body remain an impurity. Bodhicitta can make no existing , not even one atom from this body which is impure, can make not existing, can finish. And then become the priceless jewel, Buddha’s holy body, the vajra holy body, that holy body which has not one single atom, which has not one single impurity, even the size of atom. So the bodhicitta, taking more care for others than oneself, has that much power. How the bodhicitta has power, how can it do like this, change this impure body in such a priceless jewel, Buddha’s holy body? That is the incredible merits. Even in such short time, incredible merits, infinite merits, quickly can be received by the power of this bodhicitta.

Then as I explained before, even if billions of billions of sentient beings, for billions of billions of eons, made charity of that much number of universes full of jewels, without being possessed by this pure thought of bodhicitta, then the result of that good karma—it is good karma if it is done with the virtuous thought—that result finishes, that result does not last much, result finishes. Even if one make that much merit, it still does not become cause of receiving enlightenment, doesn’t become bodhisattva’s action. Then, with this pure thought of bodhicitta, just giving one small handful, bowl of food to the dog, or offering just one small flower, even small flower offering, making offering with the pure thought of bodhicitta, there’s nothing to compare to the benefits of that. There’s nothing to compare because these merits, that offering just one small flower with the pure thought of bodhicitta, that has infinite merits, as it is dedicated, as the action is done for the infinite sentient beings. So other one is not done like that, so there’s no way to compare even between the merits of the actions.

Then also like this, then Shantideva said in the teaching, for one who took bodhisattva’s ordination, for instance, who made the promise to receive enlightenment for the benefit of sentient beings, to follow the bodhisattva’s path, then, to actualize bodhicitta, the benefits of this, Shantideva explained: “One who has well-taken the thought of following the bodhisattva’s path, having the thought to never do the opposite, to never fail, to never renounce, making decision to continuously follow the bodhisattvas’ path, to not renounce the bodhisattvas’ actions, to not do the opposite things, actions opposite to the bodhisattva’s actions, to not do…” “That being who has taken well this thought” means the thought of following the bodhisattva’s path, “by having made the decision to not renounce or to not do the opposite to that bodhisattva’s action, in order to release the infinite sentient beings from samsara, from now on,” is making specific the time, from now on. “…Then, such being, since he took this, the following thought, since he made this decision, even if he sleeps, even if he become unconscious, the merits, the power of the merits of have taken this bodhisattva’s ordination,” which means having made such decision, mind decision like this, continuously, unceasingly, unceasingly merits increase, even though he’s sleeping, even though he’s fell down and trembled, unconscious, even if he’s not conscious, even during those times, the power of the benefit of the ordination unceasingly rises. Also, the merits of that one unceasingly increase infinitely because the ordination that you’ve taken, the vow you’ve made is for the benefit of all the sentient beings, not just one, two sentient beings, but all the sentient beings, so therefore besides the merits unceasingly increasing all the time, no matter whatever he is doing, infinite merits which equals infinite space. Then, there are also many other explanations, anyway it takes much time.

Then there are also many other stories to talk about how it causes one to quickly gain the merits, how bodhicitta is so powerfully quick, how bodhicitta is so quick, so powerful to purify. There are many other experience of other meditators, yogis, many other experiences of how things happened.

However, number six, that is quickly purifying all the obscurations. Again, Shantideva explained in the teaching, “Even incredible, powerful, the unceasing, unfinishing, extremely powerful negativities, except the thought of enlightenment, the bodhicitta, what other virtues, what other merits, can control it? The unfinishing, extremely powerful negativities, except the thought of the enlightenment, what other merits can control it?” What he’s saying is that incredible, powerful negative karmas which cannot be purified by other virtuous actions, which cannot be purified by other confessions, by other virtuous actions, by receiving bodhicitta they can be purified.

Then in regards how powerful it is to purify, to destroy the obscurations, the bodhicitta is like the fire of the eon, like the fire which comes when the world, when the whole earth become destroyed, when it ends. The fire which burns everything, which makes melt even the incredible, the tough rocky mountains, which burns the whole earth, whole thing, even destroys the Mount Meru. This, it’s called kalpame, it means the fire of the end of the world, kalpa is eon, the “eon fire.” That fire somehow due to karma it is incredibly powerful, so hot and incredibly powerful, very quick it burns, to destroy things. It has so much heat power. How powerful bodhicitta is, to destroy the negative karmas, obscurations, is like the fire of the end of time. The great negativities get burned, definitely get burned in one second. By what power? That is by the power of the bodhicitta, that which is like the fire of the end of the time.

Then, as it is said by the lamas, without bodhicitta, even one hundred years the person purify the negative karma, obscurations, without training the mind in bodhicitta, just in one session leaving impression on the mind the teachings of bodhicitta, it is more important, much more beneficial than one hundred years without bodhicitta making purification, spending one hundred years, continuously purifying the obscurations.

[Ge wa di…Dedication prayers]

LECTURE 29:  December 4, 1975 (evening) - 1

Then seventh benefit of bodhicitta that is obtaining whatever one wishes. That means that whatever work, whatever wishes one has, to be successful any work. However, by receiving this precious thought of bodhicitta, taking more care for others than oneself, the temporal work and ultimate work, all these works can be successful without need of much effort, without depending on much difficulties. The best work, the highest work which can be obtained with bodhicitta, that is avoiding the sentient beings’ suffering, the undesirable suffering, pacifying the sentient beings’ undesirable suffering and their obtaining the desirable happiness. As Shantideva said in the teaching, “By this, the highest happiness of infinite living beings can be immediately obtained.” Shantideva quoted to the sutra teachings.

However, especially person who practices Dharma, then if one has bodhicitta received, then any Dharma work becomes successful and much less distractions. Whatever distraction there is, how much distraction there is, by the power of bodhicitta, all these distractions, they can be easily stopped or controlled. In among the distractions, distractions of this temporal life, such as the distractions caused by the elements, and human beings and non-human beings, other living beings, such as spirits, even they cannot disturb. The power of the bodhicitta, it controls them all. And besides even the distractions, the temporal distractions, even to obtain the temporal things, temporal needs, to receive it, then with less distraction it is very easy to, as the person who has received bodhicitta, taking more care for others than oneself, by this power, even the person wishes to receive temporal things, it doesn’t depend on so much difficulties, it just easily receives.

Then there are many other ordinary actions, kind of ordinary powers, actions, that which can be obtained through certain meditations, through certain power of mantras, there are many things that ordinary people, usually ordinary people, even they try to do those things and they find difficulty to obtain. Even they try to recite, even they try to make retreat and use these techniques and try to obtain those powers, the ordinary people find very difficult, it doesn’t become successful. Even though they try, such as stopping the epidemic disease, to stop such as the earthquakes, certain things like this, certain ordinary powers like that, which can be obtained through mantras, through certain methods, this even ordinary people, who have not received bodhicitta find difficult, they don’t become that much successful. But the person who has achieved bodhicitta, all these ordinary powers easily happen, the person who has received bodhicitta, easily become successful, easily happens, mainly by the power of bodhicitta. Just even without need of reciting mantra, without need of doing those other meditations, just by having the bodhicitta, it stops, it controls many of these distractions, the temporal distractions.

Like curing other peoples’ disease, also very easily. Person who has received bodhicitta, even residue of his food, tea and food, what he ate, even this if you eat, it can cure your disease, it can cure the disease. Also, just by touching, or just by blowing, the person, certain things maybe the medicine does not cure, but by blowing the medicine, it becomes powerful to cure. Even just by blowing, the element or whatever, the liquid, such as the bottles, liquid, if the person has blown, then if it is used, then person who has pains, disease, it can cure, it can easily cure. Also even by drinking the pipi, the person who has achieved bodhicitta, even few drops drinking of this, the pipi, even that can cure the disease. Mainly why it is powerful is because of the power of the bodhicitta. These are experience of those who have received bodhicitta. Also other peoples’ experience. Without need of reciting certain specific mantras, without need of making much retreat or specific things, certain specific methods, without need of this, just by having bodhicitta.

Also such as where there’s no rain, in the countries where there’s no rain, where there’s so much difficulties of the crops dying by not having water, where the water is drying, then person who has bodhicitta can easily make rain. If he try to make rain, he can easily make rain fall. Also if there’s much danger of rain fall, causing danger to the country, food, also person who has received bodhicitta can also control, can also stop the raining. Because, that is, not coming rain and having much danger of rain, much flood coming, these things are caused mainly, of course, depending on karma. The ordinary people, even though they use the techniques, certain mantras, meditations, difficult to work, difficult right away to become successful to stop it. Then person who has bodhicitta, then just even by wishing to happen like this, by thinking, by praying, just easily things can stop, the danger of rains, flooding can stop.

Also in India, this is common thing, also these days happening in India, place where we spent eight years there, nearby Bhutan. Also many times Indians, before, maybe, they don’t know the monks can do like this. Then afterwards, because the Indian villagers they suffer so much by heat and not having rain, so they ask the monks, somehow they talked to the commander, the head-people, and they somehow asked the monks if they can do. The monks they do puja, they read certain texts and they do certain pujas, short simple pujas. Many times the Indian people they proved that they have certain power to make rain coming, they proved because they actually saw physically the rain coming, so they proved. So it happened many times like this, especially in the summertime they asked to do these things. So in the morning time we have to go out, around when the sun rises, and go to the stream, the river place and do short, simple pujas. However, then sometimes just after coming back to home, just arriving home, just you got in the home, then rain comes. Because there are many other monks who do puja, they have much knowledge and generally can describe also what’s happening.

The main thing is, the reason why bodhicitta, why by having bodhicitta one can be successful is because those things relate to the spirits. Rain coming, rain not coming, those things depends on spirits. Stopping, not coming rain, that is also disturbed by, such as nagas, when they get disturbed by the people or when their mind is not happy, angry or things like this, they get disturbed, then also they stop the rain. Usually the nagas, main place where their being situated is the sea, oceans, where there’s waters like this.

So, the main technique, the pujas, the reason why pujas for naga is because that is the technique that Guru Shakyamuni Buddha explained has to do with nagas. You have to make offering, gift, like giving gift to friend, like if you get angry, then you have to give him gift and telling “Don’t get angry, do this, don’t do this.” By giving present and telling like this. And certain reciting mantras, giving gift, present like this, then due to the power of Buddha’s method and due to the power of the truth and things like this, then it works.

However, then person who has bodhicitta, has compassion, the main thing why it is so successful, so powerful is he has compassion, compassion for the sentient beings, so with compassion, with strong compassion for other sentient beings, then using these methods, then it definitely works, it becomes very powerful. Then whatever, they listen, even spirits, nagas and those things, they listen, somehow they get controlled by the power of bodhicitta, the love and compassion, the compassionate bodhicitta.

Also such, certain places where there’s no water, completely dried, where there’s no water, then by making pujas, especially person who has bodhicitta like this, can easily produce water just by his praying and making certain, making short pujas, then the water can come. Even if it is dried place, the water can come. Like this happened, it is the experience of those other holy beings, other meditators, their experience.

In Tibet, there’s one ocean, in Tibet near Lhasa, there’s one ocean, there’s one big lake called Lhamo Lhatso, big, very famous lake, very deep. I think one of the famous ones, also very wide, very deep. In each year the government has to make many gifts, many jewels, many collections of jewels, many piles of jewels, all kinds of jewels they collect and each year they have to give the nagas there. I think this is not to do with these nagas, this is protector, there’s one special protector that has been situated, which the people used to check up His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s reincarnation from that lake, that one, it’s not naga. But there are other waters that there are different nagas being situated.

One time in Lhasa there was one flood that happened, big water, flood happened. No one can stop it, that water flood. No one can stop it. So there’s one bodhisattva called Monlam Pelwa, he wrote on the stone, this bodhisattva he wrote on the stone, “If Monlam Pelwa, “he mentioned his name, “If he is a bodhisattva then by this truth, you the water should be stopped, should be dispelled, shouldn’t come this way, should be stopped, should be dispelled.” So he wrote like this on the stone, then the stone is taken and left at the place where there is water flood coming. Then just the time the stone is left there at the water-place, then the water-flood, instead of coming this side, at the same time the stone is left there, the water start to go back, it didn’t come this way, it didn’t continue to come this way, it went back. Just by, without need of doing much pujas, saying many prayers, just even the writing like this by the bodhisattva, it has that much power. So what stopped the water flood coming this way and causing danger that is by the truth, by the truth of the bodhicitta. There are many stories like this happened with those yogis and the meditators, that happened in Tibet.

These are the temporal distractions, the ordinary distractions. However, the main distraction to receiving nirvana, distraction to receive enlightenment, those distractions also can be easily controlled by the power of bodhicitta. Then, for instance, like Atisha, his benefit so much in India, and then also spread teaching in other countries, benefitting so many numberless other living beings, also in Tibet, and made a great work in the teaching. His teachings, the lineage of his teachings, exist even now and continuously benefit minds of the sentient beings, continuously benefiting. For instance, simply talking present time, also for us, benefiting for our mind, recognizing the different delusions, even though we don’t recognize the different delusions before, now we recognize, now we know how to make the life meaningful, now we know what we are supposed to do with the life, even our having chance to practice lam-rim meditation, the meditation benefiting, such simple way it is set up, easy to understand. All these things are the benefits of the actions that were done by Atisha with his bodhicitta, the ways how his teachings have been benefiting incredible number of the sentient beings and are, then, still continuing. All these are due to the power of his bodhicitta.

Then the eighth benefit is that, by receiving bodhicitta, the person cannot be harmed, cannot be disturbed by any offence, distractions. The bodhisattva who has received bodhicitta, he has always a protector. Protector is not something like he has body guard, protector is not something of that kind like the kings, like the ministers, like president, like that, purposely arranged. Not like this. It’s not something that someone has kind of arranged. By the power, that is, because he has received bodhicitta, so by the power of that bodhicitta protection happens. The other protectors, the spirits, other living being and so on, have to protect the bodhisattva, wherever he goes. Wherever he stays, those other living beings have to protect. It’s not something that the bodhisattva himself, kind of, wished or kind of arranged. Just because of the power of bodhicitta, then those other living beings have to protect.

As it is said in the teachings, such as the universal kings, those who are extremely rich, they have many protectors, during the time of sleeping, they have many protectors. The kings of the suras, during the time of sleeping they have many protectors around the gate protecting. They have many, but the bodhisattva, who has received bodhicitta, he has double protectors than the universal king, the bodhisattva has double protectors who protect day and night, all the time. They protect the bodhisattva from such as the other offense of other spirits, from other distractions. There are different aspects of Dharma protectors who have appeared in that particular manifestation to protect, to look after, to protect the Dharma practitioners, such as the lam-rim meditator who is living in the pure Dharma practice. These protectors, they look after those such as the Dharma practitioners. Usually the meditators have to invocate, they have to make offerings to these protectors all the time, they have to make offerings, they have to ask, they have to make offerings to these protectors, to the altar, to stop, to make the Dharma practice successful and to stop the hindrance. The bodhisattvas, even without the need of asking the protectors, requesting them, without the need of making offerings, the protectors they have to, somehow they are obliged, because of the power of bodhicitta, they are obliged somehow, even the person didn’t make request or didn’t make any offerings, have to be there and always to protect the bodhisattva.

The main thing is, by having received the bodhicitta, how the outer distractions, how the outer harmfulness, distractions, become less, how they are controlled easily by having that thought. Those things like the outside spirits, the interferers, they cannot disturb the bodhisattva, can’t give harm, they are powerless to give harm to bodhisattva. Like that, the inner enemy or the inner hindrance, the delusions, also cannot control that much the bodhisattva. That is, the main distraction, the greatest distraction, that which is the worst distraction within one’s own mind, the delusions, by having received the bodhicitta, they are not so much strong as before and do rise that much. They aren’t as strong as before. So the main thing why the outside hindrance becomes less, and why the outside interferers can’t give harm that much to the bodhisattva, is because also inside there is the similar thing, the delusions, which also can’t control that much. There’s not that much strong delusion and it can’t, it is not as easy to control the bodhisattva like the times before receiving bodhicitta .

Talking about the spirits harming, and how the bodhicitta controls the spirits such as the hungry ghosts and their giving harm, their distracting, the different types of these spirits, giving harm. One of the Kadampa geshes called Kam-lung-ba, in the place called Pembo, he was meditating on lam-rim, he was meditating on bodhicitta. The spirits, the non-human beings, the spirits who are in that valley, in those countries, around those areas, wanted to cause harm, wanting to give harm to the meditator, the Kadampa geshe called Kam-lung-ba. So the tsen, tsen is one type of spirit, very powerful, this kind of spirit used to be situated in different places, different villages, like families, or village, then different country. It’s a kind of man—sometimes also, it happened many times also that a monk, a certain person who has much power when he was human being, having much power but having a mind not subdued, learned many things, also teachings, knows many things but mind not subdued. Having certain power when he was human being, but mind still being spiteful. Then, some other person, some other people don’t like him, don’t like that his mind is spiteful. Even though he’s learned, even though he knows much teaching, the mind not being subdued. There’s stories of many such people born as those spirits in the countries, born as spirits, very powerful spirits. He was very angry, he held grudges with anger, mind being spiteful with other people, then after that he was born as a spirit, powerful spirit then giving much harm to those other people, destroying possessions, causing disease, causing many problems to people, like this. There are many stories of this having happened. Even geshes, having title “geshe,” knowing many teachings, but mind not being subdued, person in his lifetime he has not checked, he didn’t look at his mind, he didn’t take care of his mind, not trained his mind in lam-rim, might die and then there are many spirits born like this. These spirits, beings born as spirits, the spirits can still say prayer. In previous life can say prayers, learned so many prayers, the spirit also can repeat the prayer. There are many stories, many funny stories happened.

Then I didn’t finish this short story—I just run away! What happened is this. So this tsen tsen, the spirits in that country, they went to give harm to this meditator Kam-lung-ba, so they went to give harm at the cave. Then, they knew that, somehow those spirits they have certain powers and they knew that meditator is having, that he is worried for them. The spirits were talking, “How dare we can give harm to this meditator? He worries for us, he is concerned for us, and he worries for us. He, himself, all the time crying and he worries for us, concerned for us, how can, how dare we give harm to him?” Then they couldn’t give harm to him, to the geshe who is this Kadampa follower meditating, practicing bodhicitta. There are many other stories.

[Ge wa di… Dedication prayers]

LECTURE 30:  December 4, 1975 (evening) - 2

I will finish the benefits of the bodhicitta, then the rest of the subject what is left, I think, as it can be finished. We were talking about the eighth benefit, that the bodhisattva who received the bodhicitta cannot be disturbed by any offense and distractions. We were talking about, then, when the bodhisattva is in even very mischievous place where there’s so much offense given by the spirits, the non-human beings. Very mischievous place, even though it is kind of terrible place usually, if the bodhisattva, whenever the bodhisattva came there, the being who has received bodhicitta, then even the place, even the whole mischevious place becomes, the place where the bodhisattva is, even though it didn’t have that much good vibration before, then when the bodhisattva is there, then even the place, whole environment, whole place changes. There’s good environment, very quiet, not so much violence, not so much the harming spirits around, harming the people, things like this. No more, everything gets stopped.

The place where, even though usually the place is kind of not growing good crops and even though there’s many dangers, many catastrophes, many dangerous things happening, when the bodhisattva is there, who has received the bodhicitta, taking more care for others than oneself, then somehow by the power of that mind the rain comes on time, even the weather is getting better. Even if usually it is very terrible, then that time even the weather gets better. Even the plants, due to the power or the blessing of the bodhicitta, then even the plants, crops, grow well around that area. Then, also, the bodhisattva, even in the forest, even it is such very mischievous place, forest, very wild place, even if he is walking through like this, many dangerous things, poisonous snakes, tigers, many fearful animals, then somehow the precious thought of bodhicitta, taking more can for others than oneself, because of the power of this, even those fearful animals, very angry, tigers, snakes, even those very fearful animals, they get controlled, become subdued. Instead of their harming, their being violent, they become very subdued.

There happened many stories of previous bodhisattvas, the great yogis who lived in India, there are many stories like this, in their autobiographies. Then such as, for instance to Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, one devil, one evil person called duldul means kind of evil, devil—he sent, I think he was Magyeda, King Magyeda who often tried to give harm to Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, this king sent a crazy elephant to destroy Guru Shakyamuni Buddha. Then when Guru Shakyamuni Buddha was coming in the road for begging, then that King Magyeda, who always thinks to destroy Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, then sent a crazy elephant. Then, usually, people get afraid of the crazy elephant. Along with Guru Shakyamuni Buddha there were many arhats following, following after Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, coming for begging in the village. So all other followers, they flew away; they had achieved the arhat stage and they had much psychic powers, so they flew away. But Guru Shakyamuni Buddha didn’t fly, and the crazy elephant instead of harming Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, destroying Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, the elephant was kind of very humble. As the elephant reached in the presence of Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, automatically became very humble, and kind of respecting, prostrating. Humble, like the dogs, when the dog is scared of the master, scared of being beaten, kind of like prostrating, kind of very humble. Like that, automatically, even though Guru Shakyamuni Buddha did not beat the elephant, just as the elephant reached there, automatically became controlled. The usually crazy elephant in the presence of Guru Shakyamuni Buddha it becomes non-crazy elephant. Things like this, those are the power of the bodhicitta.

[Then one other time there was a boat with many people, and then a storm came, and] there was only one person with a good mind, the rest of the people were scared of themselves being drowned in the water, so scared. Then the other person, the one person, he wished like this, “May I be drowned on behalf of them, on behalf of these people. May I be drowned in the water and let them survive, may I be drowned.” So one person wished like this so strongly, while other people are so worried of themselves get drowned, worrying of one person only, themselves. Then, what happened was the boat sunk and the rest of the people who were worried of themselves, about just one person, themselves, they all drowned. But the one person who worried of others, he didn’t get drowned. He survived, he was on the surface of the water, floating. Then in that way, he wasn’t drowned, and then he got out of the water. There are many experiences, especially the bodhisattvas, there are many experiences to talk about.

Then also there are many stories to talk about, also in Tibet things like this happened. In Tibet there are so many stories of these spirits harming, making people crazy, harming people, and there are many people getting crazy. Many times like this, people become crazy, many times like this because certain spirits, they kind of possess the person so he becomes crazy, getting lost and doing all kinds of things that the person usually doesn’t do. Many things like this have happened. In one village in Tibet, there are certain lamas, in their own village certain monks who make puja, whom they used to call to make puja when they have some problems. Not so much common in Tibet, calling doctor, but in those areas, the custom, instead of calling doctor is calling monk, or someone elese, even a lay person, who can make puja. However, the person who make puja, the other people believe that maybe that he has little bit of reputation, some kind of name, some reputation, and the people kind of respect him. One time they invited him to dispel the spirit from a person in the family who became crazy. So the person who came to make puja, using the bones of thigh, thigh-bones, then damaru-s and these things, then the person came to make puja and the villagers, they believed that he, they respected him and he has, kind of, reputation. So this person came to make, I’m not sure whether he was a monk or lay person, however, he has kind of reputation. But then he couldn’t, he tried to control the spirit who possessed the person but couldn’t. Instead of becoming controlled through pujas, that spirit, the person who was possessed by the spirit, the girl, the young daughter who was possessed by the spirit, when the person made puja trying to control it, that spirit all of a sudden stood up and picked up shoe and beat the person who made the puja, like this happened. Then after that he couldn’t control.

Somehow one poor monk, one monk, just simple monk, just came there just to beg in the country. The people did not really hope that he can help, but somehow the family invited him, and kind of asked him if there’s something that can be done. So before this visiting monk, since that spirit also can say prayers, when this other guy was making puja, this spirit was also repeating prayers at the same time, because his previous life was one of a monk, or some kind of person who has little bit of title, reputation, geshe or someone who did that kind of things, but because of his mind not being controlled, not trained in bodhicitta, things like this, not renounced mind of samsara, he got rebirth like this spirit. So, the simple monk, begging, the monk came and then when he came there, I’m not sure whether he did puja or something, but somehow he made little bit meditation. Then the spirit who possessed the girl said, “Now I can leave this. Before I didn’t leave, but now I’m going to leave this person, I’m not going to give offense because you have better mind.” That is what he said, the spirit, “You have better mind, that’s why I’m going to leave.” Because the simple monk had, because maybe he knows the lam-rim teachings, so then he, maybe he has compassion, mind training in compassion. So the spirit said, “Now I will leave this person, I won’t give any offense because you have better mind,” which comes to the point of compassion, the base of the bodhicitta. There are many stories to talk about, things like this.

I think before I mentioned there were only eight benefits, it is a mistake, sorry. I did not concentrate. It has ten benefits. This is just, the “ten benefits” are just for us to have idea, to understand the benefits of bodhicitta. Actually, benefits of bodhicitta, if the Buddha is going to explain, then just to finish the benefits of bodhicitta you may have to spend eons, eons, eons. However, this is just an outline, like this, so that we ordinary people can easily figure it out, have some idea of the benefits of bodhicitta, how bodhicitta is useful, beneficial and necessary to cultivate, to receive.

Then the ninth, number nine is increasing, progressing on the path and realizations. That is like this. If one’s mind is training in bodhicitta, even though one hasn’t received the bodhicitta, but especially if one has received the bodhicitta, then it is very quick to complete the whole path. The Paramitayana path, the Vajrayana path, everything, it’s very quick. In that way, that is the way how the bodhicitta makes to receive enlightenment quickly. Then also, receiving enlightenment quickly through Vajrayana, what is usually said is that the Vajrayana is the short-cut path. Usually it is introduced like this. However, without having received bodhicitta it’s impossible that, no matter how much the person spend the whole life in the practice of Vajrayana, the two stages, generation stage and completion stage—there are two practices, which include controlling nadis, opening the chakras, all these things—without bodhicitta, nothing of this, even if he spends his whole life in the Vajrayana practice like this, no matter how much he understands, nothing of this becomes cause of receiving enlightenment, nothing of this becomes Mahayana action, even.

Then, what makes Vajrayana the short-cut path to enlightenment? That is only, that is mainly by the bodhicitta. Even one does not practice Vajrayana, then if one has received the bodhicitta, then just by having received it, that pure thought, one becomes closer, closer to enlightenment, day by day, hour by hour. Then person who has bodhicitta received, every time, day and night, whole time, he creates benefits, all the time infinite merits. All the time, in each minute, all the time, so like that, that much he made purification, he becomes closer, closer, even minute by minute, closer to enlightenment.

Like this, it’s a logical thing. It can be understood, can be thought in this way, we can think about it in this way, which is logical. This point is not straight explained in the teachings, however the base is in the teachings, so we can think like this. It is a logical thing. This point, when you make meditation on the usefulness of the perfect human rebirth, the last one, checking the meditation, also you can use this meditation on that, becoming closer to enlightenment as the person trains the mind in the graduated path. As the person trains his mind in the bodhicitta becomes closer, closer to enlightenment, this subject can bring in that part, which then make his practice very powerful, which energizes, which builds energy to practice bodhicitta.

I think also even for the person who hasn’t received bodhicitta, if the person’s mind is really training and practicing bodhicitta, then also his experience of other meditations also increases, I think. It helps to increase, like, the experience of shunyata meditation. It helps very much to develop like this. Because the bodhicitta is the main method which purifies, through which one can gain so much merits and purify, make such quick, wide purification. So that is how it helps also to increase, to progress the experience of the shunyata meditation, and other meditations, also.

Then, number ten is like this. The person who has received bodhicitta, that one becomes a holy field from where all the sentient beings’ happiness rises, from where all the sentient beings’ happiness comes, without excluding even one. Then, this is again quite a long subject, also difficult to understand how it is from the outline. This can be explained afterwards, some points of the meditations, the details of this. Just briefly talking, there are two types of arhats, those who have realized shunyata, one called Hearer, Shravaka, one is called Self-conqueror, Pratyekabuddha, like this. Buddha, this is just called buddha but it’s not, doesn’t mean same buddha as who has the achievement of complete enlightenment. As Chandrakirti, one of the great pandits who has the perfect realization of shunyata, who wrote many teachings on shunyata, as he said in one of his texts on the Madhyamaka subject, “From where the Self-conqueror and the Hearer, from where they are born? They are born from Shakyamuni Buddha. From where the Shakyamuni Buddha was born? From the bodhisattva, Shakyamuni Buddha was born from the bodhisattva.” However, it is same, calling Shakyamuni Buddha or just buddha, however it has same meaning. However, born from, can put also, those two arhats are born from a buddha. From where is a buddha? A buddha is born from a bodhisattva. From where the bodhisattva was born? Bodhisattva was born from the bodhicitta. The compassionate thought, the wisdom, the non-dual wisdom, the wisdom realizing shunyata. However, the fundamental thing is, the root thing is the love and compassionate bodhicitta, the basic thing is that.

So like this, another way of putting it is: The ordinary beings’ happiness, and the happiness of the followers of the Lesser Vehicle path, the Hearers and Self-conquerors, even their perfections, even their happiness, where those came from, they came from Buddha. The Buddha’s happiness, all the Buddha’s perfections, where that came from, that came from bodhisattva. Then the, from where all the bodhisattva’s knowledge is received, that is received from the bodhicitta. So bodhicitta, the love and compassionate bodhicitta is the basic thing. This way, if you want to check up, then you can check in this way. Details talking right now, it takes time. Briefly like this, about the ten benefits of the bodhicitta, it’s like this.

As this has incredible benefits like this, then we are fortunate, we are fortunate to hear the benefits of bodhicitta and we are fortunate to understand the benefits of the bodhicitta. Just even generating the thought, just even generating the wish to practice bodhicitta, to train the mind in bodhicitta, just by having the wish, even before starting the practice, just having that wish we are extremely fortunate, extremely lucky, just by generating the wish. Without that wish there is no way that we can practice, that we put into action, that we try to understand, listen.

First of all actualizing. So, in the world, on this earth, actualizing bodhicitta is extremely rare, just like we cannot see the star in the daytime. Extremely rare, that is because beings who are practicing bodhicitta are very rare, so few. That is because beings who are understanding bodhicitta are very few, so few. Beings understanding bodhicitta, the benefits of bodhichitta are very few. Then generating the wish to practice the bodhicitta is so rare, very, very rare. Even though, in the world, there is that much countries called Buddhist countries, this is Buddhist, that is not Buddhist, there are many countries which is called Buddhist country, there are many monks, there are many people who think they are practicing Dharma, many monasteries, many things like this, many people who try to observe precepts, who try to do something, try to study Dharma, even though there is that, understanding the teaching on bodhicitta, understanding the benefits and generating the wish to practice bodhicitta, to really sincerely practice bodhicitta, that’s very rare, very, very few, very rare. Only where there’s the Mahayana teachings existing, only in those parts, only in those sites, places. Even in the places where there is the Mahayana teachings existing that doesn’t mean all the people in that country practice the Mahayana teaching, practice bodhicitta, it doesn’t mean this.

The person who practice bodhicitta, if it is counted, if you check up, then it gets lost compared to the number of the people who don’t practice bodhicitta. Even though the country is called a Mahayana country, even though it’s a country where there’s the Mahayana teaching existing.
Also by understanding the benefits, then no matter how much there is other Dharma which is called profound, secret, “This is very secret, this is very profound, this is very difficult to get,” then no matter how much there are other teachings, there are other Dharma like this, no matter how much there is like this, then real profound teaching, the real, the most beneficial thing, the real quick path to enlightenment, that is bodhicitta. So first of all, especially beginners, we beginners, where we should put our effort more is the fundamental realization of the bodhicitta. This is more important than those other subjects, called higher subjects, Vajrayana, then such as secret, profound this and that, having so many titles that people call.

Also necessary to know how to practice bodhicitta. Many people think, also in Tibet also happened, this morning’s prayer, sang-gye cho dang..., this prayer motivating the bodhicitta, prayer to meditate on the bodhicitta, to cultivate the motivation of bodhicitta, in previous times, in Tibet, it happened, during Atisha’s time, happened, people believed, that just saying this prayer, that is bodhicitta, that means receive the bodhicitta, having the realization of bodhicitta. They think like this, which is wrong, which is completely wrong. Without need of meditation, just by saying the prayer like this, bodhicitta is there, realization is over there. Then Atisha said, “You, the Tibetan people, know a bodhisattva but don’t know how to practice bodhicitta; who don’t know how to practice the love and compassion, the bodhicitta, such as the bodhisattva, you the Tibetan people know,” which means there is no such bodhisattva who doesn’t know how to practice love and compassion, how to practice bodhicitta. Also Atisha said “There’s no such enlightenment which can be received without realization of bodhicitta, there’s no such enlightenment, there’s no such buddhahood stage, there’s no such buddha who doesn’t have bodhicitta also.” Then, if there is enlightenment which can be received without bodhicitta, it must be new enlightenment, as all the other numberless buddhas haven’t received it. Then they again have to practice to receive this new enlightenment! Clarifying, like this, is also important, if there are people who think like this. This is meditating, when we say this prayer, our mind is supposed to meditate in bodhicitta. It doesn’t mean the thought itself is the bodhicitta, the realization of bodhicitta.

Then this the rest of the subject that we did not finish before. Since I started to say this then I thought to finish the little bit of subject what’s left. Then I just make the translation, the essential teaching, there’s not so much time, however, through the lam-rim teaching also you can understand, you can expand the meaning of this teaching, it’s the same as lam-rim teaching, this itself is lam-rim teaching, just a matter of the words which are formed in a different way, just the outline made out in the form like this, but it’s same subject, but it’s set out in little bit different way.

When harm is received to the body, look at it as it is previous karma. This is how we should look at it, think, as it is previous karma. This contains all dangers, sufferings what is received in this life, body and mind. Then the technique, what to think during those times is, think, instead of saying, “This is the fault of other people, this is the fault of my friend, this is the fault of my parents, this is the fault of everything,” instead of like this, which doesn’t help at all, which doesn’t make your mind happy, which doesn’t stop the problems, only makes to increase the problem, mind problem, fighting each other, so then instead of saying that, instead of thinking that way, then think, “As it is the result of previous karma,” then should think, should be aware of the karma. “Why am I experiencing this? It’s because of my previous karma. Because I created some karma in previous lifetime, so also I have to experience the result.” So in this way you see it is your own fault, so you can’t blame, you cannot point to other person. It’s your fault. We cannot find to point out. So in this way there’s no way to fight, no way to get angry, there’s no way to generate any problems. It only makes to keep quiet, even though you are suffering.

It makes the mind happy also. If you think of another person then the mind has more problems, more anger and so many things arise. One creates so much negative karma with the body, speech and mind. Then in this way, if you think like this, if you look at it as the result of previous karma, “My own fault,” in this way your experience of suffering becomes helper, it helps you to be careful regarding the karma later on, from now on. It makes you think, “Now I should be careful, from now on I should be careful, I should observe well karma.” So, in that way the root of the happiness starts, the root of the peace starts.

Next point. Again there’s a gomba, which means, crazy, as we talked before. “Be in a solitary place just like the dead animal’s body, hide oneself by oneself. Whatever better way, more comfortable way, one hide oneself. Be without attachment or exist without attachment.” Like, be a good person, be without attachment. This again is long talk. Just talking details about this point. This is also the Kadampas’, the followers of Atisha, Kadampas’ practice, their fundamental practice. This involves in the practice of the ascetic, fundamental practice of the meditators who live ascetic lives. Doesn’t mean this can be practiced only by who live in the cave, it doesn’t mean this. It doesn’t mean should be practiced only by person who lives in a cave and not who live in the city; it doesn’t mean this also. However, there are about ten aims, ten aims, possessions, that are the fundamental practice of the Kadampa followers. This is very interesting. I think especially young people today hear this.

Ten innermost jewels. That’s a very good translation, innermost aim, what I mean that the aim is innermost is that you seek in depths of heart. Those aims that you have you keep in the heart.
This means like this. If I mention the essence, I will mention just briefly only that part, not mentioning the same thing, without going through details.

Then the person who worries like this. “If one practices only Dharma, innermost, secret Dharma, if one does like this, only practices Dharma and renounces seeking the happiness of this life, then what about this? Does one become beggar, cannot complete the human life, and he will die? Will there be danger to die by starving, by being hungry, by feeling cold and hungry, like this?” Then, the answer to the question is, the innermost of the mind is Dharma, the innermost of the Dharma that is what? Aim of the Dharma, innermost of the Dharma that is what? That is depending on beggar. If one is thinking like this, “If I only practice Dharma, renouncing seeking the happiness of this life, then I will become beggar. And if I don’t obtain even a little bit, if I don’t work for the happiness of this life, if I don’t work a little bit, if I don’t collect the temporal needs a little bit, how can I finish my life? My life will be so much suffering,” then, the answer to that question that is, the innermost Dharma depends on the beggar.

Then again, “I won’t have anything and be a beggar like this, practicing Dharma, I will die by being cold, starving,” things like this, there can be dangers like this, worrying like this. Then the answer to that worry that is, the innermost dharma of the beggar, or the aim of the beggar, depends on death. And that means the death, from the beginningless lifetimes so far, we didn’t die for Dharma practice. It’s just one time dying by practicing Dharma. Between the rich people who have created so much negative karma to collect the possessions and beggar who doesn’t have anything, at the death time they are the same thing, no difference. There’s not any difference, there’s not any higher quality, there’s not any higher knowledge. Same thing. It is fortunate to die by practicing Dharma rather than by creating bad karma, by spending the whole life by creating bad karma. The answer, this is how to think, this is the answer to that specific worry. “I will die by reciting,” things like this.

Then again worrying, “Oh, when I die I must get someone to take care of my body, I must have some possessions, I must have someone to take care of my body, to burn my body, to take care, to bury it. How can I leave my body like this?” Worried of that time, that we will need some help at the death time, worried like this.

Then the answer to that worry, that is, the innermost of the death or the aim of the death, that depends on cave, the dried rock. That means, doesn’t matter, renouncing, not worrying about the death time, about not having someone to take care of the dead body or to burn it or to do something, or to help, not worrying of this. Then the answer to that is not worrying. Like the wild animals, if they die in some corner place by themselves, they go in some corner place they die by themselves without being known to others. Very quietly, very simply. So like this, the answer to that other worry, that is like in the mountains, like the animal dying, doesn’t matter, even one’s body is in the mountain cave or somewhere, some corner, solitary place. Even if the body is rotten, even the body is full of worms, full of smells, doesn’t matter.

So this subject it contains that part of the explanation. So one should hide oneself, be without attachment, the whole thing, it means that. Death time, without letting other people, without letting friends, without letting relatives, without letting other people know, like the mountain animal, without letting other people to know, without knowing by other people, then dying very quietly, very peacefully, simply like this. At the death time meeting other people, meeting things, this and that, so many people coming, it distracts, it becomes distraction at the death time.

[Ge wa di… Dedication prayers]