Kopan Course No. 08 (1975)

By Kyabje Lama Zopa Rinpoche
Kopan Monastery, Nepal, 1975 (Archive #089)

These teachings were given by Lama Thubten Zopa Rinpoche at the Eighth Kopan Meditation Course at Kopan Monastery, Nepal in 1975. The transcripts are lightly edited by Tsultrim Davis.

You may also download the entire contents of these teachings as a pdf.

Section Five: Lectures 21 to 25

LECTURE 21: NOVEMBER 25, 1975 (evening)

Recognizing the Buddha
I must achieve enlightenment especially to enlighten all the mother sentient beings, therefore I’m going to listen to the profound commentary on the graduated path to enlightenment.

This profound teaching which purpose is the lead individual sentient being to enlightenment is well expounded by great philosophers Nagarjuna and Asanga. This profound teaching, which is the essence of great Atisha, Guru Tsongkhapa’s understanding of the teachings elucidates the path which is set up by Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, it is set up for the practice for one person’s enlightenment and this commentary on graduated path has four outlines, the last one is the way of leading the disciple in the path to enlightenment and has two outlines: the first one is the way of following the guru who is the root of the path and that has three outlines:

  • What to do at the beginning
  • What to be done on the actual path
  • What to be done at the end.

So this beginning is the preparation. So we are finished part of the purifying method. After visualizing the merit field the purifying method is part of that. So this time the subject that’s in order, to go a little bit down the lam-rim meditation, in order to reach some more in the lam-rim meditation for the rest of the other, rest of the teachings from the book that’s written by Atisha, then I think there’s not so much left, but there’s still more left, but just little bit left. Perhaps that can be after some time.

So, just briefly finish the explanation, explanation, just the essence, just the essence from the guru practice. As some people may have already received teachings on this who has been studying in Dharamsala with and may have received teachings on the complete the lam-rim meditation. However, there will be many, soon there will be many teachings translated anyway. So, then, can read, can study, can meditate, you know, can understand from those teachings. More details, especially about, special on the guru practice. However, some people may think, some people may have thought, “She thinks, he thinks I am putting in my head,” you know, “He thinks about guru and devotion, this and that, those are his own things.” Might think, “Putting in my brain or putting in my head,” some people may have thought like this. “Oh, his own thing putting in our head,” things like that. However, then, some new people it maybe seen to them kind of that I’m showing movie, kind of movie or kind of funny thing you know. Kind of funny thing, funny thing. However, that is natural. Even though you feel like this, that is natural. Then, the unknowing mind, because it’s a new subject, new subject, so it can be strange at the beginning. However, there’s need, the old students, this is a subject that is needed very much to understand. Then, the other hand, the new people feel strange, you know, so it’s kind of two different things going on, two different things.

However, at this time in this course, usually not so much talk on the guru practice. There’s right away starting, usually since I started the course, usually start from the perfect human rebirth and without, not so much talk, maybe little but not much talk, not explanation on the guru practice. So this time, somehow, something forcing, something is forcing to talk about it, so there’re three explanations happening in the beginning. However, even though you may think it’s strange, if you continue to study, when you understand the following meditation, it is deeper. Then, usually, the refuge, if you understand, when you understand refuge, the more you study, more you checking meditation on the refuge, the more you understand guru devotion. Then, also, the more you understand general meditation, then also you can understand the guru practice better. Your feeling of guru practice becomes stronger by understanding deeper the meditations following it, especially the refuge. More you understand refuge, it can help. There it contains the proof or the logic about the essence of the guru—how the Buddha benefits, how the buddhas are benefiting or guiding the sentient beings to the guru. Then, clearer to understand. If one understands the refuge meditation, details. Not just taking refuge to Buddha, Dharma, Sangha, but how they are benefiting the sentient beings in that way, as you understand deeper that part, you can see that much clearer. Then, you can see that much clearer. That the guru that we try to meditate, that we try to see as Buddha. Not, “Yeah, he’s not Buddha, but trying to look at it as if Buddha,” not like that.

We are trying to see the Buddha as a Buddha. We don’t recognize the buddhas as Buddha, so through meditation we recognize the Buddha as Buddha. Try to recognize the Buddha as a Buddha. Not recognize something which is not Buddha as Buddha, but recognize Buddha as Buddha. Like example that I put the child, blind recognizing the mother. That’s the same thing. Trying to recognize as the Buddha that which we are not aware is Buddha. Then, through meditation, through the purification, through meditation we’re trying to justify to our mind and trying to see it, and trying to see it in the Buddha, as it is Buddha. Like this. This point can be clearly understood as part of the refuge.

Then, next is how to train the mind in the gradual path by following the guru, training the mind in the gradual path, you know, how to train the mind by following the guru. Then, from that two outlines, persuading the mind in order to take essence with the perfect human rebirth and how to take essence of this perfect human rebirth. Then, generally talking about, generally among the essence, for instance by following the lower gradual path, such as to be born in upper realms, not being born in the suffering realms. Then, by following the middle gradual path, then, to receive nirvana. Then, by following the higher gradual path, receiving enlightenment for the benefit of other sentient beings. However, in order to take the essence of the perfect human rebirth, then, first of all there’s a need for energy. There’s a need for energy. Energy to follow the path that brings these results. So the method which gives energy, which builds energy, that is the outline persuading the mind in order to take essence with the perfect human rebirth. So first of all, the first meditation is the perfect human rebirth, the second is the usefulness of the perfect human rebirth and difficulty of receiving the perfect human rebirth.

Then, about the first meditation in regards talking about first thing is the narak [hell realm]. Perhaps the people, after talking that much, have been encouraged through this checking, this meditation may not have problems, may not have that much confusion in the mind. But, then, the suffering narak, the suffering for the preta, oh, all these things. Also in the Bible there’s also things like that like that, hells like this, and also in other religions also. However, the basic conception, even though the similar technique is used, the meaning is different, not same, not same, The conception, the evolution, the evolution, explanation, is different. There are many similar names, similar names used but they have different meaning. Then, that which is right, which is not right, that you know from our side we have to check up, we have to check up. Even though it is explained differently than this, it says it in some other religion’s teaching, you know, explains something, like this. From outside, with wisdom, we have to check up which one is one is right or not, which one is wrong or right.

However, some people say it is only in the mind, not outside, only in the mind. Everything is in the mind. Then, some people, there are also people who say like this. “Oh, that samsara, samsara kind of is in the mind, kind of animals are also in the mind. We didn’t have war, it’s also in the mind.” Then, anyway, this I’m joking with you. I’m not sure whether people think like this. Anyway, there are people who say everything in the mind. They say, they say everything’s in the mind, you know. But when there is a problem, when there’s a problem, they don’t think it is in the mind. During the meditation time, then when someone explains, then they say it is in the mind, but when there’s a problem when they have problem with another person, something goes wrong, you know, ego problem, you know, fighting each other, something going on, then they forgot, they don’t try to think even. They don’t believe, they don’t try to think, you know, at that time that it is in the mind. At that time, if they think it is in the mind, something like that, then, perhaps there may be some benefits, you know to help in this situation. But, they don’t think. Then, they just talk, talk from mouth, just without understanding. There are different conceptions like this. Why I think is like this. However, in other words, many people think, “Those things do not exist because I do not see, I don’t see. My friends don’t see, friends do not explain.” Without talking much, “Yeah, those things do exist, as it described in the teaching, as it is described the lam-rim teaching, as you heard before,” you know. “That such thing as it is explained in the teaching, such terrible things like that. Oh, it does exist, it does definitely exist.” Then, how is that evolution? How can it exist? Then that is the creation of the mind.

The living beings who are suffering as preta, who are suffering as narak beings, also who are suffering like this in such a way, that is what they see, what they view. That is the projection of their mind, the projection of their deluded mind. It is a creation of mind, another interpretation is how it’s the creation of mind, because it’s the projection of the delusions Projection of the delusion. The result of the negative karma, the result of the negative karma, a projection of the delusion. You know, the view, such unhappy, incredible places, then, suffering like this. That is the result of the negative karma, a projection of the delusion. Then, as the great bodhisattva Shantideva said in his the precious teaching, “From where the burning iron ground, the narak, the narak, the burning iron ground came, who has created the burning iron ground of the narak, from where came the big fire?”

From where this big fire came? It is due to the sinful mind, it is due to the sinful mind, Guru Shakyamuni Buddha said. Shantideva referred to what Guru Shakyamuni Buddha explained in the sutra teaching. From where came, who created the burning ground of the narak? It is due to the sinful mind, which means deluded mind.

So like this example, even in one country where one usually lives, in certain season the whole country becomes very muddy, very dirty and muddy, very uncomfortable to live. Very difficult, you know, much rain and so many problems, Sometimes it become very beautiful, sometimes the place where you live even just the same place sometimes much good sunshine and not so much cold and everything is beautiful, much flower, and so much beautiful. But sometimes very muddy and so much problem. That beautiful place we enjoy, which we view, is the result of the good karma. Then, other one, the unhappy place, you know, becoming, it’s becoming unhappy place, it changing into unhappy place. Everything changing and kind of becoming kind of dried, looking ugly, everything becoming changing that’s the result of your negative karma. Just talking like this. Same thing with yourself, having happy life, sometimes having suffering life, terrible, everything ugly,. Those are the results, one of the good karma one of the negative karma as I explained before. Similar, just like this, this is our own experience. So like this same thing, the narak beings.

It just because of our suffering’s very light, their suffering’s incredibly heavier, then, thousand billion times it is greater, heavier, the difference is only a matter of that. But the creation is the same. Where it’s created is the same, by our karma. What we view, the ugly, the suffering place, the ugly place, all these things, how we see, our view, that’s also projection of our mind, and it is the same thing with narak. Another way of talking is to say it is just like dream. Our dreams are another example about such as narak and those things Sometimes we dream that oneself is, whole country full of fire and oneself in the fire and so frightening like this, we get that kind of dream sometimes. We get that kind of dream like being drowned in such a big ocean, taken by whales, like great, huge mountains falling down on your head, you know, sort of like that, you know. All kinds of dreams we get, like very frightening things. That is also the creation of mind. Also the result of karma. Also like this, you see, just like this, just like this with naraks, like this. Another way to understand is like this.

Then, for instance, there are people who say, “There’s no such thing existing because we don’t see. If there’s such thing, the scientists or the scientific people who studies geography, the different countries, studying the different countries, geography, or who traveled round and tried to study village and different country, how do you say, geography, then, people who do like this, they would know, they would know, but they don’t know. And the other people don’t see, so it is, that is only Eastern thing, Tibetan thing.” However, that cannot prove that. Just because other people don’t see, because I don’t see, that cannot prove that. Because, same thing, hundred people sleeping in the room, then I get a dream like this, the whole night so much kind of suffering dream. Then, you you people can’t see my dream But I experience this dream. Because you can’t see my dream, you cannot see my dream, then you cannot prove that I don’t have this dream. That’s ridiculous! Just like this, similar thing, same thing. People talking like this but same as this thing. You don’t know that I don’t have such dream, impossible, how can you share my experience?

Another way of putting is like this. Some people say, “Such a thing will never happen, since I was born until now, I always had a good life, I am well-educated, I know many things from being in school, I have much money in the bank, I have job I have everything. Such terrible things will never happen to me. It’s impossible to happen to me. I don’t see any cause, I don’t see anything.” Some people, they’re like this. “Such these things will never happen. It’s impossible to happen to me. I don’t see any cause, I don’t see anything.” Some people are like this, trusting. Whatever the life you have now, trusting you will have always this kind of life. Trusting that, more or less, this kind of life is permanent. Believing that always life will be like this. It will never decay, never will be brought down. It is always like this, believing like this. This belief comes from not really understanding the teacher, you know. Some people they find by thinking like this they find confusion in the mind about these things. “Such these things, such as the suffering realm, it’s impossible, such as the situation that I will get in, it is impossible to happen. Even if I die, impossible to happen.”

However, again that is wrong conception, again that is wrong conception. For instance, before Hitler, the German guy, Hitler, before he appeared, the millions of Jewish people, before when they were children, even the time when they were children, even both times, I’m sure the Jewish people, all the people who suffered, didn’t expect, they never thought such thing would happen. They didn’t have imagination, they never expected, never thought that. Even if someone maybe tried to explain, they wouldn’t believe, maybe they would think other person is crazy. Maybe, if it was explained to them, maybe at that time, those Jewish people would think other person who explains about future life was crazy, that such thing will happen, terrible thing. However, even though they didn’t imagine, they didn’t have any thoughts like this before, without depending on their expectation or their knowledge or understanding of the future, the suffering life happened. It happened, such terrible things happened, afterwards. Even though they didn’t know before, even though they didn’t have imagination of that, even though they didn’t believe it at the beginning. So, because I cannot see the future, because I don’t see now it’s happening, I don’t see the cause, just that cannot prove. Because one not having the knowledge to see, that cannot prove, that cannot prove. Then, even this life, even this life. Such change of life will never happen, will never occur, such terrible life will never happen. Since your mind cannot see the future, how can you reject? Like this, just talking about just before the death.

Then, same thing, just like this we can’t say it will never happen, such a miserable life, change of life, will never happen. We can’t say definitely beforehand when the moment of death will be. We can’t say like this, by checking the capabilities of our own mind. Like this, same thing regarding the death. No way that, since we have no confidence that, since we don’t have any cause which can give us confidence that we never be reborn in lower realms, since we won’t have created any cause which gives us confidence in the mind, since we don’t have this, since our minds don’t have any capability to predict the future rebirth, we cannot say absolutely that I will never be reborn in such suffering realms. Cannot say. However, then, if your mind has confusions like this, other various wrong conceptions that think, “Such thing doesn’t exist”, you know, then can think, can check up what I said, can check up. Whether you believe or not, can check up. By understanding what I said, these examples, by checking those, then you can figure, you can understand all those suffering realms.

Then as I explained, thinking like this: “Numberless times in my previous lives I was born in the narak realm. Extremely difficult to practice Dharma. Never have a chance to practice dharma, for instance. Putting, for instance, the sparkle of fire even just tiny thing the sparkle of the fire, the spark of fire on your body—maybe the gas doesn’t have sparkle, I’m not sure—the firewood, when you’re sitting nearby the firewood the fire sparks jump on your body, on your hand, on your leg, on your head. Can’t stand even one second, can’t stand even a minute without throwing the spark off, without shaking it, without throwing the spark. Even though someone ask, “Don’t move, please, do more meditation. Don’t move, just keep straight, don’t move, don’t move.” Then, even a tiny fire, even such tiny fire, spark came on the head, on the hand, on the feet, like this, can’t stand even a second, have to shake off, can’t meditate, it’s impossible to meditate while the spark is one the body, it’s impossible. So, like this, same thing like this, how it is extremely difficult to have chance to practice Dharma in those realms. That is like this. So here like this it is impossible to practice Dharma when even tiny spark is on the body, so how can be possible to practice Dharma in those narak realms? Impossible.

Then think, “How fortunate I am that this time I, not being born in narak realm and have received perfect human rebirth, having chance to practice Dharma, how fortunate I am,” like this. The spark, comparing the heat, the hot suffering that the narak beings have, for them, that fire spark, my present suffering, having the fire spark on the body, that is nothing. That is pleasure for them, the narak beings. It is a pleasure for them, nothing. Comparing the suffering, the hot suffering, what they experience, this is due to karma. It is by the karma, it is a creation of the delusion. Why is it so? The heat suffering we experience is so little energy, has little energy, but the fire has so much incredibly heat energy, that is their karma, their karma, their karma. Like example, very hot food, for some person it’s so hot, can’t drink it. Some people, not much hot. Also that’s the same thing with heat, with heat suffering. Then, terrible place where there’s so much incredible heat, so some person can’t stand even an hour, one hour to be in that place. Some people, they enjoy.

Just little bit to make clear about, to prove why our human being heat suffering is so little, energy is less than their heat suffering, the energy of the fire. Oh, like this, same thing. Think, “Even the time when I wasn’t born in the narak realms, oh, the numberless times I was born in preta realms.” Oh, these things maybe if you have to, if you want to write down it’s ok, if not, then maybe just think. It’s good. Numberless times born in preta realm. For instance, today, if I carried on explaining from this morning until night without allowing to have lunch, without allowing to have even one lunch, without allowing. Oh, you cannot concentrate on the teaching, you can’t concentrate on the teaching. Even the body itself is moving, starting to leave, starting to go. Even the body’s hungry. Mind can’t, teaching is just like the water stream, noise of the stream. The noise of the stream you don’t have to pay attention. It just goes there. It’s not something that specifically you have to pay attention, not like this.

Trying to concentrate, trying to concentrate on the teaching. Even one hour lunch is delayed, one lunch is delayed, then, trying to concentrate on the teaching. Trying to concentrate on the teaching. Trying to meditate, trying to meditate. Oh, like this, same way talking like this. Trying to meditate, trying to meditate. Without getting lunch, then can’t meditate, can’t concentrate. This suffering of feeling hungry is nothing compared to the suffering of the pretas, the hungry ghosts or the pretas, their suffering of feeling hungry. Their suffering of feeling hungry is much more greater, hundred times greater than our suffering of feeling hungry. Such as not receiving even, not seeing, not seeing food for even hundred years. Even a little drop of water not seeing. Even though the life is continuously passing, they are still feeling hunger and thirst. Then, hundred years is just an example, just an example. According to the karma they have, sometimes their hunger lasts eons ,or things like, this according to how heavy karma result they had. Then, things like this. Then, comparing this to our present experience, we have no difficulty to find comparison. Even just time, one hour delayed, you can’t control your mind, you know. Then, things like this. Comparing to the present experience like this is very useful, very, very effective. So, however, like this, like this. So, it is impossible in those realms, impossible to practice Dharma where there’s such great suffering like this. “Having received the perfect human rebirth, having the chance to practice Dharma, how fortunate I am.”

Then, animals. Then, even the number of times when I was born as preta, I was born as animal, numberless times, numberless times. Even if you tell the animals, “You must recite this mantra, you will receive enlightenment right away,” if you tell, even if the mantra was that powerful, even the mantra has that much power to purify delusion, even the mantra is very powerful, incredibly powerful purifying so much negative karmas like this, even you explained the dog or the cow, you say, “Repeat this mantra and you will receive enlightenment right away,” then, they can’t recite, can’t make no choice, no choice, like this. This is how it is in the animal suffering, how deeply dumb, ignorant, like this. One thing is this, each of these meditations that you are doing, you put yourself in that situation, you put yourself as if you are narak, suffering there. Then, preta, you put yourself in that situation, preta, as I am preta, like this. How terrible it is, try to see it. Then dog, then animal. Numberless times I was born as animal. The animal, even you tell like this to animal, cannot recite the mantra. So suffering, dumb. Put yourself. If you don’t see, then put yourself, visualize yourself as animal, a dog or cow, a very dumb animal, visualize yourself in that. Then think how it is, whether you can stand or not, just even for one hour to be in such in that shape. Very dumb, like this. Like this, extremely difficult to practice Dharma in that shape. This time I am not being born as animal and having received perfect human rebirth and having chance to practice Dharma. How fortunate. As I wish. How fortunate I am.”

Then, even the time when I wasn’t born as animal, then, I was born numberless times as, even when I was born in the human realm, then I was born as a barbarian, barbarian. So the people who don’t understand, not only the arid country, not only the place where there’s no Dharma, but the people are completely ignorant, completely ignorant, no idea of at all of karma. And no understanding of karma at all. Completely, just another way of saying, kind of animal. By reading how limited the, how the mind is ignorant in the Dharma and all this, and not understanding karma, it’s in that way kind of karma, like this, the barbarians. Numberless times I was born as a barbarian, even though those times I was born as human being, still never having chance to practice Dharma. Then, put yourself, like there are countries, people like this, in the world where there’s no Dharma, where they can’t hear one, even four words of Dharma, cannot hear, completely ignorant, completely ignorant. All the time, continuous, day and night, all the time, continuously creating negative karma, all the time. Completely ignorant. Very, kind of, they have human shape, they have understanding, like us, but they don’t have our chance to practice Dharma, having possibility to create the right cause of happiness. When you look at them, their always upset, things like this. Oh, you remember those people, those places, those people, and you put yourself in that situation. Let’s think: I’m that kind of person, barbarian. Think how it is, how terrible it is, how limited in the chance of Dharma practice, how limited it is. So putting the mind in this way is very good, it’s very good. It becomes very clear to your mind. Not just saying that, not just remembering the word “barbarian,” but visualizing that, you get the feeling. More important, in the meditation, the more important thing is the feeling. Important thing is the, to have strong feeling, to really see clearly, really feel clearly. That is the main thing. So, “This time I’m not being born as the barbarian, having received perfect human rebirth and having chance to practice Dharma. How fortunate I am.”

Then, long-life gods, real long-life gods. Even when I wasn’t born as a barbarian, numberless times I was born as those long-life gods in those upper realms, the long-life gods. Even the time when I was born in the upper realms, born as those long-life gods, such as the sense realm, formless realm and the form realm. The formless world, such as beings in those realms, such as those whose whole life is cognitionless. Like sleeping, from the beginning, no matter how long they live, it does not matter how long, billion and billion of years, whatever length of life they have, they live, how long they live, it is no use in practicing Dharma. Just mind is conscious at the beginning of birth that, “I am born,” such as like this. Then, after birth, completely cognitionless, unaware. Only at the end, when they die, when the mind passed from that realm, they aware that “I’m dying.” Just only these two things. Extremely difficult to practice Dharma.

Then, such as the world of the senses, world of the senses, or the world of the desire means the god of the desire, the god of desire who enjoys object of the senses, object of five senses. Even in those realms, they have such incredible rich enjoyments, place, food, clothes, everything so rich, incredibly rich, having many hundreds, having many friends that always play with each other, always enjoy with him. Not easy, not easy to recognize the nature of the suffering. As it is easy to recognize the nature of suffering in the human realm, it is not easy to recognize the nature of suffering, to see the nature of suffering in those realms, by those gods, difficult. So, because of that, difficult to control the delusions. So, difficult to practice Dharma. Like the experience, like some students who go back to the West, like their experience, like they say. They say, where there’s many object of senses, there are many things around, then can’t control, difficult to control the mind. There is much around, mind gets occupied by the distractions, by the distractions, the attachment, finding difficulty to practice Dharma, to meditate. As is this is their experience, like this example, the enjoyments for the gods of the sense realm are much more rich than what is in the West. Much more, much more than that, incredibly rich, much higher, better quality. The whole thing. So however, why is it difficult to practice Dharma there, why is it very difficult to understand, to really practice Dharma there? Because, as I said, the conclusion is that it is difficult to recognize the nature of the suffering. The conclusion is that. However, the mind, as they have so much the rich enjoyments, everything around, beautiful, made of jewels, beautiful, many beautiful, everything they have around. Not so much suffering of the temporal, not so much suffering of the temporal needs. Like human beings have kind of starving, many things such as the feeling cold or hot or, kind of, sufferings by not having the temporal needs. Those kind of suffering they don’t have. Even though they have suffering, they have suffering, but this kind of things, problems, they don’t have, like him being sad. Their mind is always occupied by the attachment, the distractions, attachments that attach onyo objects, attach on objects. Even there they have no chance like we have in human realm, to receive teachings from Buddha, from Buddha who manifests in nirmanakaya, in the form of monk like this, receiving teaching. This kind of chance to receive teaching directly like this, to receive all the teachings like this, and the practice and then make much retreat like this, actualize all the path, realize nature of suffering. Like the human beings in this world have chance like this. Because of their delusion and their karma, even though the buddhas want to give teaching, explain all the teaching to them, explain all the nature of suffering,they don’t have the karma to receive, to have that straight contact, direct contact and receive teaching like this, Sutra, Tantra, all those things. So, even the very fortunate ones, even the very fortunate gods, who have little few bit fortune to hear Dharma, to just to hear the dharma, then, when those very few ones who have little bit fortune, little karma, just like the animals, they hear the Dharma words, the prayers. For them, through the buddhas, through the only method which fits to them, the only method to which they are receptive, a special method called “The Great Drum of the Gods.” So through the drum they hear the Dharma. Those who have fortune, little bit of karma, who is receptive to fit that method, they hear the Dharma from that drum, just intuitively, from the drum they hear the Dharma.

So only through manifesting, manifesting through materials, then they hear Dharma sounds like this. That kind of method fits to them. So like this very difficult to practice Dharma in those realms. However, so you think even in the world in here, like we’re in certain place, in certain condition, in certain place, certain conditions. When you are in certain conditions difficult to control mind, difficult to practice Dharma. Mind is like this you remember this, then you put, relate it with the sura, or the god of the desire, then how difficult it is there. “Even though I was born there numberless times, never have chance to follow the gradual path and practice Dharma like this, so this time, not being born there, having received perfect human rebirth, having chance to practice Dharma. How fortunate I am.” Like this.

Just like this is similar to also the person who has wrong view, the person who has wrong view. Then, numberless, even the time I was born as the asura, as the long-life gods, then numberless times I was born there, same as the person who has the wrong view. Who don’t, who think that only one life, no passing, so ceasing, who think there is no such as Buddha, Dharma, Sangha, these things, that there is there is no such thing as that kind of reality. Oh, thinking like this, that is wrong view. Think, “Numberless times born like this, never having chance to practice Dharma.” Then, you think, put yourself in that situation, put yourself, you remember those kind of people and then you put yourself in that situation. “I am this. If I am like this, how is it having wrong view?. Having no understanding of karma, not believing, no understanding karma.” How difficult it is to create even, never mind following the gradual path, forget, just to create good karma, how difficult it is. There’s no chance, no knowledge to create good karma. No knowledge, no understanding. How difficult it is. You put yourself in that situation and feel it how it is, then think, “This time I’m not being born as pretas or persons who have wrong view, have receive perfect human rebirth and having chance to practice Dharma, how fortunate I am.”

I think I stop here. However all the following, the remaining two things, they’re just like this, similar like this. And just checking in such as way like this, it’s a little long, little bit long but it comes so much details and it what it does is it increases the feeling, it makes the subject real, it doesn’t become kind of fairy tale. It doesn’t become like fairy tale, like parents tell children. Not like this. It becomes, it makes you to see clearly.

LECTURE 22: November 26, 1975

The highly realized lama who is inseparable from, who is one with, the Buddha, the buddha-wisdom, the Great Lama Tsongkhapa, as he said in his the holy teaching, “Listen with clear mind, fortunate one, the fortunate one, who is attempting to make a perfect human rebirth meaningful, and listen to the teachings explaining the path which pleases the buddhas.” However, that is as Guru Tsongkhapa in the precious teaching, the method, the essential method which makes it meaningful, for the fortunate ones who are attempting to make the perfect human rebirth meaningful, practicing the essential method to make a perfect human rebirth meaningful, that method is following the gradual path to enlightenment Also, the teaching, the path which pleases all the buddhas. What is that? That is also totally in the gradual path to enlightenment.

What did Guru Tsongkhapa say to lead the fortunate one who wants to listen the teaching of the path which pleases all the buddhas? That is also the gradual path to enlightenment. It is extremely fortunate to be able to hear and think and to try to understand and meditate on the teaching of the gradual path while we have received the perfect human rebirth. Before listening to this teaching, necessary to cultivate the pure motivation, the pure motivation. In order for it to become the action of listening to Dharma, the cause of receiving enlightenment for the benefit of other sentient beings, who are extremely kind to me and continuously suffering. Lead them where? Yeah, to the most sublime happiness, the enlightenment first. Therefore I’m going to listen to the profound teaching on the gradual path to enlightenment. The listening subject of that is the Mahayana teaching which leads the fortunate one to enlightenment. It is well explained, the profound teaching, the essence of the great pandit, Atisha, and the great Lama Tsongkhapa, it includes all the 84,000, the essence of the all the 84,000, teachings shown by Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, all these teachings are set up for the gradual practice of one person achieving enlightenment.

Depending on this path the past, present, and future buddhas have received enlightenment. The commentary on the gradual path to enlightenment , this is four-page outlines, large one, how to, the gradual path, leading the disciple, or the actual teaching. Then the mind in the gradual path to enlightenment. Just to explain one outline, that is the how to make the guru practice which is two outlines, the actual time and interval time. And then in the actual time there’s three outlines. Then the completion, that is dedicating the merits. Interval time, break time, break time. How there’s such an actual time of the meditation, actual session and interval time like this. Why there’s like this? As I explained before, that whole, is divided in two. The meditator, you know, his whole his life divided into meditation time, the actual time of the meditation, and the break time. However, that is to emphasize, to emphasize that it is not enough to be careful during your meditation sessions, but then, during the interval time, not to make, not trying to make human life, the human rebirth meaningful. Interval time, forgetting already meditation session and not remembering how to make life meaningful.

There’s less meditation, generally, less time in meditation session, but we spend more time in the interval, not in meditation time. So therefore, this is to emphasize besides protecting one’s own the body, speech and mind from negative action during the meditation session, it’s also important, it’s also necessary to continuously discipline the speech, body and mind, even in the interval time. It’s important to take care, to take care in the interval times especially. Whether the person is retreating or not retreating, generally like this. Even for the person who is lodged in the retreat, even though he has meditation session, one time meditation session, how much distraction he has during that one time meditation session in the day, how much distraction it has, how it becomes successful, whether it happened easily or whether the person finds it very difficult to meditate, that depends on his practice. Even though he has just one meditation session in the day, in the morning or somewhere, in the nighttime, that depends on usually his practice, the actions what he does, actions of speech, body and mind that what he does in his interval times, break times. It depends on that. In the rest of the day, in the break times, if he’s not, if the action of speech, body and mind has no observer, just letting whatever happen,. Just like letting out crazy elephant outside, not tying up, letting out to go anywhere, let it do anything. So just like this. Because of the mind, the speech, body and mind, all three, as it has got habit, as it has got habit to do the vices, to follow the delusion. As the mind is trained in that way and as the speech, body and mind as it got trained in that way, got habit in that way, then, that’s how, particularly when you try to meditate, even 15 minutes session we do in a day, try to meditate, how, why we find extremely difficult to concentrate and so many things coming in the mind. Can’t control the body to relax. That is because of the habit of how it has been trained or got habit during the break times.

Dharma practice, then means always observing, always observing what kind of action our body does. Always observing what kind of action of speech, body, and mind one does. While one is walking, eating, drinking, whatever one does, always observing, always observing, whether it’s dharma or not. Always observing like this. If it is not going in the diections of Dharma, then try to go the Dharma. Stop the hindrance which disturbs the action from becoming dharma.

So if there’s discipline even in the break time, then in the meditation session, because of that energy or the continuity of that, also speech, body, and mind get trained in that way, get habit in that way, so in the actual meditation session, even if the person does it for a very short time, there is less distraction, very easy. So they help each other. The meditation session also helps the mind in the interval time to be more conscious, to be more mindful, to recognize the actions. In the same way, living in the discipline, observing the actions of speech, body, and mind, it helps also very much for the actual the meditation session. So for us there’s more time, we spend more time, we have more break time than the actual meditation session, but we concentrate our mind in the meditation subject. So actually this is kind of more important in the interval to be careful, to observe. As the great pandit Atisha said in the teaching which we did not finish yet, “If one is among many people, then, check up, then observe one’s own speech, observe the speech. If one is alone, then observe the mind.”

The point is this. If you are among many people, even though the action of body and speech come from the mind, there are certain actions of body and speech that which comes due to the conditions, by having other people around. So even though it comes from the mind, even if the mind thinks it is negative, it is easy to do because there are other people around, it makes the person easily create negative karma through action of speech and body, like this. Also through the mind. This becomes a condition. One thinks, “Oh I’m starting to talk some negative thing which means that I’m creating karma because my motivation is impure.” So, as one becomes conscious like this, if one disciplines, keeps his speech away from that negative action of speech then one doesn’t create negative karma through speech. Same thing with the body, like this.

When one is alone, however, observe the mind. Because when one is alone, the danger is from the mind. It’s kind of a habit. That is the thing which makes it difficult for us to control the mind. There happened many lamas, many meditators, many Tibetan lamas making retreat. On the four sides of the house they put signs saying, “Don’t let the mind be distracted.” The meditators used to write this. Even in terrible time, somehow it reminds the person to practice, dharma practice. And then, in the break time, to make the practice easy, in the interval time to have continuous dharma practice, try to integrate and control the delusions. That is, try to see everything, try to understand everything that you see, that you hear, as the gradual path. The person on the gradual path should always be aware, put everything in meditation. Whatever happens becomes lam-rim meditation for him. Especially this is needed in the retreat time. But even the times when we don’t retreat, if one can do like this, whatever condition one has, good condition, miserable condition, it keeps the mind always happy because your mind is always in meditation, lam-rim meditation. Lam-rim meditation, all the time. What you see is always a teaching. That keeps the mind so peaceful. Not up and down, not up and down, not up and down. Peaceful. Happy. If one can do, this is one of the best things to make the interval actions become dharma easily. Just brief talk on the interval, the break time.

The outline, how to train the mind in the gradual path by following the guru, that has two outlines: persuading the mind in order to take essence with the perfect human rebirth, and how to take the essence with the perfect human rebirth. Persuading the mind in order to take essence with the perfect human rebirth. As Guru Shakyamuni Buddha explained in the teaching, as Nagarjuna explained in the precious teaching, there are ten of these things we have in a perfect human rebirth and eight unfree states that we do not have. Eight unfree states and the freedom of the release from the eight unfree states—the freedom having the chance to practice dharma by not being born as preta, animal, also the long-life gods, the barbarians and also the heretical beings who have wrong view. The last two things that weren’t finished, again as I did yesterday, the form of the meditation is to think, “Even the number of times I wasn’t born as the person who has wrong view, I was born numberless times where there’s no buddha’s teaching. I didn’t have chance to practice dharma.” Also put yourself, also visualize, think as if you are in such a place, time like that. Completely ignorant in the dharma, there’s no way to understand dharma.

Try to feel it, how difficult it is to have chance to practice Dharma. “How fortunate I am this time, I have received the perfect human rebirth by not being born place time where there’s no buddha, no buddhas’ teaching. Even the times when I wasn’t born in such a place, I was born as a foolish person, unable to understand the meaning of the teaching, or learn the teachings. During those times when I was born as these, the unfree states like this, I didn’t have the chance to practice Dharma.” Remember a person whose mind is completely foolish like those. Can’t understand, can’t learn even the words, can’t understand the meaning. Put ourselves in that situation. How difficult it is to practice Dharma. Try to feel that, then think, this time having the chance to practice Dharma by receiving perfect human rebirth without being born as such a foolish person.

One of the girls ask that how to take the ordination, the eight Mahayana precepts by oneself. That is like this. First, after you get up, then you clean your face and things like that, then if you have altar—generally taking ordination does not depends on having and altar or having a statue there. “If there’s no statue you can’t take ordination.” Not like this. It does not depends on having statue—then , if you have some kind of altar, you arrange it. Whether you have some kind of altar or not, even if you don’t have some material thing like this to remind you of buddha, there is nothing that the omniscient mind does not see. There’s not one single action, there’s not one single existence. Also there’s no such time that the transcendental, omniscient mind, the buddhas’ transcendental wisdom, omniscient mind does not see all of existence. There’s no such time, there’s not even a second, there’s not even a split second that the transcendental wisdom, omniscient mind does not see things. There’s not one single action existent which is not seen by the transcendental wisdom, omniscient mind. So there’s no place where there’s no omniscient mind, there’s no place where there’s no buddha’s holy mind. There’s no place where there’s no buddha’s holy body.

Our speech, body and mind are very, kind of, isolated, very separated, very separated from each other. We have not achieved that control yet. Separate, mind, speech and body, separate. Body and speech each have different functions. Completely separate, very powerless due to the dualistic mind. Again this comes to the very profound teaching, a tantric subject. Even though you don’t have a statue, even in the bathroom, wherever it is, you can offer anywhere. Mentally transformed offerings can be made anywhere; they do not depend on the room. Buddha is always in a shiny room, beautiful room, kind of well-decorated. Buddha can stay only there, but no other place. Not like that. Does not depend on something fixed up. People, ordinary people, ordinary people they come only if it is well arranged there, of course it is good looking, there they come. But otherwise they didn’t come. If it is dirty, they didn’t come. Buddha is, all the time, there in the meditation room, whether you invite him or not, or believe him or not, or make offerings or not.

First of all the Buddha has omniscient mind. He sees what our mind wants so there is no reason to call through prayers. The whole purpose of invocation and doing all this practice, as it is said in the prayers by those highly realized lamas, that is mainly to purify pure dualistic mind. Because our superstition thinks the Buddha is not here. Our superstition thinks the Buddha is not here. Here are only the material things: me, me and my things, but not the Buddha. Like this, this is what usually the person thinks. So the invocation is for the sake of superstition, dualistic mind. So by invoking then you think, through that meditation then you believe, the Buddha is really there. It somehow makes you think, makes you feel the Buddha is here. In that way you get stronger feeling, so everything what you do is more kind of not just playing games, kind of serious, precise. Invocation is to create the merit, to purify the dualistic mind.

Think, by understanding, by remembering what I just said, how the Buddha’s holy mind is, the function of the omniscient mind, knowledge of omniscient mind. There is a relationship. There is a meaning, there is a relationship, Vajrasattva, Vajradhara. Wherever the Buddha’s holy speech is, the body and mind is always inseparable everywhere. Visualizing Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, you make offering like this. Mentally you can make much bigger, much better, better quality. Mental transformed offering you can visualize so incredible, like this earth, incredible golden, beautiful bowl and full of nectars of a blissful nature. If you make offerings like this you create extra good karma. Also, when you offer your water bowls, you can think like this. There’s many ways, simple things, like this you can think like this. Instead if thinking only this bowl is made of brass or clay and holds only water, you can make much better mental transformed offerings. Then you don’t have to buy. Just your mind putting effort. So very easily you create good karma.

The main point is mentally transformed offering creates good karma even though it’s not in the physical form, because many times in our mind even if the mind just mind visualization, we get attached. We remember material objects from shops, from some countries, Tibetan things, Chinese things. Even the visualization comes and we get attached, we want it. How do the mentally transformed offerings create good karma? Because you dedicated it. Even though it is not in the material, you are offering it, you are dedicating it, and renouncing attachment, miserliness. That’s how you create good karma. So then, secondly, the object to whom you offer is the holy object, the enlightened being, whom you offer, it’s a holy object, so because of that also you create good karma. If you know how to meditate in shunyata, in order to become direct remedy to samsara, self and offering, then whom you offer the buddha, all three in the emptiness, you think, in voidness, in the voidness. The person who makes offerings, the offering and the object to whom you offer the offering. All these things object of offering , because of the object of making offering exists because of the action of offering. Action of offering exists because of the material of offerings and the person making offering. The person making offering exists because of the action and the offering material. The material offerings exist because of these things, dependent arising. Dependent arising has much meaning. Dependent arising has much meaning. This itself it explains shunyata. Dependent, first dependent, second arising. This explains emptiness. Emptiness. As I explained these there. All these three, dependent rising. So that’s why they have reality absolute nature. So, by thinking “dependent arising,” how they’re dependent arising, then easily you can see emptiness.

Easily you can see emptiness, easily you can see as illusive all these three. If one can do like this, it is perfect, direct remedy, it becomes remedy to cut off the root of samsara. This is with anything. This is when even you offer.Even you’re going, even you are making offering to other holy beings, gurus, for other holy beings, even you are actually making like this, one can do like this. Same thing, when person makes charity to beggar, also like this, meditating in shunyata. What the person can meditate can beautify, can make the action of offering perfect, by concentrating in the emptiness of these three. Even the least the person can do, the most important thing, is the motivation, bodhicitta. Emptiness is, if you don’t know how to do it, then very difficult, very difficult, because there’s always danger you think you’re doing something, but you’re doing something that is not so much emptiness. There’s a lot of work, but you’re doing something not so much emptiness. There’s much danger. Thinking like this. As our guru said, he explained, he, as he made the offering like this, then after he made the offering, after he put the offering there, then you think, at least even though you cannot think of shunyata, the most important thing is, whether you think of shunyata or not, bodhicitta. Bodhicitta is the most important thing needed, because without it the action cannot become cause of receiving enlightenment. So, this is the principal cause.

One can visualize also that the buddha has received his blissfulness, his feeling of blissfulness. It’s amplified, it’s increased, like infinite sky, due to this offering, you can think. That is because, generally buddha does not have such things like this. Generally, from the side of buddha, there’s no such thing as “higher blissfulness,” more blissfulness that the buddha experiences, that the buddha does not experience now. And by your offering, then they received extra blissfulness, they received higher blissfulness. Not like this, not like this. Because buddha has finished collecting merit and making purification. If there’s extra, higher happiness, if blissfulness is left, higher pleasure or higher blissfulness left, then that means buddha did not finish creating merits, making purification. So, there’s nothing left, no higher blissfulness left that the buddha does not experience or hasn’t been experiencing. Because buddha has completely finished collecting merits and making purification. This is for one’s own benefit, for the benefit of oneself and other sentient beings to create the merit. If you imagine, if you visualize like this, that the buddha, due to this offering, buddha has received infinite blissfulness. Like if it is the material, like infinite space, think, if you visualize like this then it will create, we create good karma, good karma from our side. We think like this. Then, dedicate, and through the merits of my making this offering, this offering that which we have mentally transformed or what you have material offered there, due to the merits of making this offering, may myself and all sentient beings—whether you say “myself” doesn’t matter, however—all the sentient beings reach enlightenment. Dedicating merits to all the sentient beings. Like you are giving them to them. How you think from the mind, think all the sentient beings, due to these merits, may all the sentient beings receive enlightenment right now, due to these merits, may all sentient beings receive enlightenment right now.

You can dedicate merits like this. Then same thing, you are making even one offering, you are making many offerings, candles, incense, many offerings you are making, also you can dedicate with each offering. Generally, it becomes little bit too much trouble, but generally, when you make each offering there’s a way to think, way to think, way to make benefit for other sentient beings, way to make it beneficial for other sentient beings. So first I explain this. So, just in that minute, as you dedicate your merits for each of the sentient beings like this, your resource, you dedicate. As number of the sentient beings, numberless the merits that we have gained, it’s also numberless, infinite. If you dedicate merits for just one sentient being, once, and you gain one merit. Like this, you gain just in one minute, just only one minute you collect infinite merits by the power of the motivation, the bodhicitta. Dedicating for all sentient being so, easily, even though what you offer is such small bowl, small thing, one short stick of incense, nothing, nothing, just small thing, but once you have the bodhicitta, this motivation, incredible, unbelievable merits you create in such short time, short time. So without needing much talk on this.

When you light incense, like this there’s many ways, according to practice there’s many ways to make it into meditation, according to one’s understanding. There’s many ways, very profound ways to make offering,. When you light incense, when you light the incense, you dedicate at the same time. While you are lighting the incense you think, “By lighting the incense, may all the sentient beings, dualistic minds be burned, be completely burned by the transcendental wisdom of the great happiness, the fire of the great transcendental wisdom, happiness, the blissfulness.” Then also visualize that all the sentient beings dualistic mind is completely burned, completely dissipated. Not like when the paper is burned, there is something residue left not like that, nothing on that way. But completely dissipated, by receiving the great transcendental wisdom of happiness. Like that you can think. It’s very helpful, it’s very good for mindful, very good for practicing bodhicitta. Also, I think, when you offer incense, even one stick of incense, again you dedicate the merit in the same way for all the sentient beings to receive enlightenment. Then, when you offer candle, you can think like this, or candles or whatever you like them time also candles, also like this. The candle, the flame of the candle, the flame of the candle is like the wisdom of shunyata. The flame of the wisdom of shunyata. Then, what it does, that is destroying the ignorance.

Before taking the ordination, if one can due to those preparations it’s very good, it’s very good. Such as making the offering. Then after that , then go through the prayer, taking refuge, the taking refuge. As it’s said in this prayer, has been recognized as very powerful. I think the story was this prayer came from Atisha. In the teachings it is said that this prayer is very precious because it came from Atisha. This can be said because it involves cultivating the bodhicitta and also dedicating merits. Cultivating the bodhicitta, the motivation of the bodhicitta, not only cultivating the motivation of bodhicitta, also it becomes dedicating merits, dedicating merits. How does it become also dedicating merits? Because as it’s said in the word’s of the prayer, “By the merits of making charity and so on.” That includes rest of the other paramita practices, these six paramita practices, that includes also other merits, the word “charity” is itself, and the others are clear in the word “and so on.” That includes all other rest merits, such as keeping precepts, as the practice of patience, the paramita of energy, concentration, wisdom, all other rest of the merits so included if that. So, by these merits, by the merits, charity and so on, may I receive enlightenment for the benefit of all other sentient beings.

So also at the same time becomes dedicating merits. Also, generally, through this prayer, through this short prayer, refuge and bodhicitta, one includes taking refuge and includes all the three gradual paths, all the three the lam-rim. The whole path just in this short prayer. If one has idea, if one can feel all the three gradual paths are included in this, in this short prayer. And also by saying this short prayer, person remembers all the three gradual path and also with this prayer one can make the vow to follow, to practice the two types of bodhicitta, the wishing bodhicitta and following the engaging bodhicitta. And then making vow to observe the bodhisattva’s practice such as the practice on six paramitas.

Also meditate on all three circles remembering voidness, thinking of voidness. This can be also said for taking refuge and cultivating the motivation, bodhicitta. Then, purifying the place. That meditation is as it is in the prayer, in the translation. That is clear, again, to create merit. If you have visualized a beautiful place like this, for invocation, like before inviting the king or the important person, you’re making the place clean and beautiful. Before invocation, purifying the place. Before you have cleaned the room and did those things. Already cleaned. But also visualize more beautiful. For instance, like a beautiful park having so many attractive beautiful flowers and beautiful, charming birds, making Dharma sounds, and having beautiful water, as much as possible. The ground is made of jewels like lapis lazuli and much concrete like rubber band, very soft, doesn’t hurt. There are many details, anyway, like this, to create merits. So visualizing like this and then make offering and make invocation like this, creating merits. The place itself is like an offering. Then, offering the prayer that we recite in the morning, which contains actual material offering and mental transformed offering, which comes in the prayer, as the prayer itself contains, “May this offering embrace all of space.” Visualize numberless buddhas on each atom.

If one’s mind is capable, then there’s time to think like this. It’s a method to create as much merit as possible. Like a person making business. Try to get profit as much as possible while he has chance to make business. Even with a small thing they try to get as much as possible without renouncing, because by having many small things, keeping many small things, all the pieces, then it becomes much. On the creating merits, how much we are skillful in the creating good karma, merits, purification, we can try to get as much as possible. That’s skillful business. Like that, we should be skillful and wise in creating merits and making purification. Even though we are doing it for a short time, one minute, one hour, if we have the understanding of those methods, even if a person lives a hundred years, two hundred years, if he doesn’t know the benefits of the motivation of the bodhicitta, the person whose mind is training in the bodhicitta, always cultivating the pure motivation of the bodhicitta, in one minute he gains merits infinite as the infinite space. Even the other person who creates the merit, who lived hundred thousand the years and created still couldn’t create that much merit, which equals the infinite space.

This person’s one second, one minute of creating merit, can never compare to the other one. Even though he doesn’t live that much long time, in just one minute he created good karma with that method. It depends so much on skill. As it is usually said in the teachings, for the wise person, the skillful, wise person, even he’s very skillful and he knows the method, the various methods, powerful methods, how to purify quickly, even the heavy negative karma becomes small. For the foolish person, unskilled person, even a small negative karma becomes big. That is because, you see, not having method, and not using powerful methods. Not being skillful, not knowing the methods, so even if he’s created small negative karma, gradually it becomes very big. By increasing, like this, without purifying. This mantra has much power. If one recites this mantra after making offering, making mental transformed offering, due to the power, the truth of the three jewels, of the bodhisattvas, the powers of the accumulation of two merits, this mantra has power.

The invocation. Generally there are different practices of meditation in regards invocation, there are different types of invocations, how to visualize, how to think of them, depend on different tantra practices. Sometimes we invocate from the pure realms of the buddhas, but the usual thing, the invocation, as I explained this morning, Buddha’s omniscient mind is everywhere, so just at that place, just right there whenever you have visualized buddha, just out of that sphere, from that sphere of reality, you think that Buddha’s omniscient mind entered and took place there. Then prostrations. Even if you are making one prostration, if you recite this mantra, it makes thousands, thousands of times more merit. That’s the power of the mantra.

And also it has other benefits, not only that, other benefits, like leaving impression on the mind to be able to practice the three divisions of teaching: Vinaya, Sutra, and the Abhidharma, the Tripitaka, the three division of teachings. In the teaching it said also that by reciting this mantra one also receives benefits of listening, thinking, or meditating on these teachings. It gives power to leave impressions on the mind to be able to understand these teachings. Then after that, whichever prayer, other prayer, prostration prayer you recite, you can recite. During the prostration time, then prayer can be recited, then like refuge prayer one can also prostrate. Like this also one can recite, at the same time making purification, like we make purification in the meditation time with the refuge. It can be done like this, as I described, and if we can do, visualize as I described however much you can multiply your own body, that much number buddhas on each atom and in the presence of each buddha, like this, making prostration to each buddha on one atom.

In the merit field, there are many buddhas of the lineage of the teachings, and an infinite number of offerings can be done also like this. Whether you visualize many buddhas like this or on the tree like you see maybe in some paintings. In the meditation course book, in the part of the prostration, it is explained to visualize Avalokiteshvara and make prostration like this. That is just to give idea, this is just my own idea. I have the interest in visualizing Avalokiteshvara, Thousand-arm Avalokiteshvara. Every time when prostration has to be made, somehow, I thought it’s good. In the teachings, in the prayers, the teachings explained the when making prostration one should manifest numberless bodies having many heads, having many hands, having many mouths, and many tongues. So at the same time you say prayer, you chant, so all the mouths chants. The purpose is this.

The bodhisattva who received the first level has that much power to manifest a hundred bodies. The second has more, and so on. As they reach higher and higher levels, they manifest more bodies, as they’re closer to enlightenment. As they’re closer to enlightenment, creating more and more good karma. As we haven’t received even the realization of perfect human rebirth, then, nothing. All people, then such person like me, thinking, “Oh I have made 100,000 prostrations, now I’ve finished, I did enough, now I don’t have to do any more.” That kind of thinking is kind of foolish, it’s kind of unskillful thinking, it it’s kind of foolish thinking, not understanding, not understanding. “Now my number, I finished. I did this. Now what to do is just relax, relax the mind, free.” Anyway, I’m joking. There is no question that even the higher bodhisattvas as they reach closer and closer to enlightenment, they create more and more good karma like this and by their manifestation so many thousand, millions, billions of manifestations. Actually we sort of have to create more than they create. We have to, but to actually manifest in the billions, hundreds bodies, there’s no power so we have to visualize, that’s the only way we can do it. And generally one cannot be satisfied. “Oh, I have recited 100,000 Vajrasattva mantras, I have made 100,000 prostrations, now I don’t have any more kind of like that, kind of like taking holiday.” If you understand your negative karma is only 100,000 times, that’s all the number what you have created then maybe it’s okay, otherwise, not be satisfied. From the beginningless previous lifetimes only 100,000 negative karmas, then OK.

Then prostration time, the usual, the three, or even you’re counting many prostration, even you’re making long retreat on the prostration, generally if your mind is careful, doing the prostration quickly and also making the visualization, how to make prostration with the visualization of the object, making prostration everything like this, then it’s okay. You create more merit, that many prostrations you do, quicker. Some people do not know how to make prostrations, so they just count the number. It is difficult for this to become purification. It just becomes physical exercise. In that case then, any physical exercise can be purification. Playing football can be also be purification, or anything. In America, many people physical exercise tied their feet on the rope, then they lay down, they watched television. I watched the television with the leg tied with the rope, then move around, then more. There is need for understanding, not just doing these things, not just that, just physical exercise itself is not prostration, just imitation, not real purifying method. To become purifying method your mind has to make it the purifying method. The body doesn’t make it. Through the mind, as the mind makes it the purifying method, then also by that way the action of body becomes the purifying method. If one cannot do as I told before, then the usual simple thing is to visualize the holy object there, Avalokiteshvara or whichever or Guru Shakyamuni Buddha or whatever you visualize there.

Then you think, all your beginningless previous lives you have created negative karma. In each of the previous lives you have created negative karma, so you visualize all the beginningless previous lives, all those in human body, filling up whole space. With that also you can think other sentient beings together, as if you are leading other sentient beings, and all your previous lives, all sentient beings, and you are like the leader, like you are leading the sentient beings also to make prostration. And then, like this, you make prostration. Prostration has different things like this. Some prostration is like this. Some prostration they go like this. Then some lineage of the lamas their prostration is as we do. Just the hand doing like this is also prostration just like this, you know. Whenever you see any holy beings or statues or anything, whenever you so any holy stupa, statue, or any holy statue, any holy object that you see, then, as you see, your hand just doing like this, this is also prostration. You create the merit, you easily create the merit, just by doing like this, with mind devotion. So, like this, one can easily create merit, as one sees, many holy objects like this, holy statues, like this, this is also prostration, with mind of devotion, remembering the knowledge, knowledge of the buddhas. The two thumbs putting like this signify offering jewel, signifying offering jewel, not hand being empty. This is called prostration. Like this, prostration. Beings who have refuge, their prostration is like this. Taking refuge in the buddha, prostration like this. Then hands go here during prostration, that creates karma for you to receive a buddha’s top-knot. That sounds like when you are hit on the head, a bump comes! [laughs] That visualization came in my mind. Sometimes when you knock your head on the door by accident, then it comes out [laughs]. Anyway, I’m joking.

Those are the holy signs of the Buddha’s holy body. Holy signs. Realizations. All the Buddha’s holy signs, each of them have cause that has been created while the buddha was following the path following the path, it was created during when he was practicing Dharma. In order to benefit other sentient beings we have to have also a nirmanakaya aspect like this. By receiving enlightenment, to appear different manifestation like this, in the nirmanakaya aspect, like Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, we have to create the cause of each of these holy signs, like Guru Shakyamuni Buddha did. So this creates the karma to receive the crown head, the double head, top knot.

That creates the karma to receive the holy sign of this. Generally, also when you do like this, also at that time this is the visualization that you can do: from the holy object comes a white light purifying all the negative, all the physical, all the delusions, all the physical negativities, the negative actions of the physical body. Think: all the negative karma of the body, delusions, everything, becomes non-existent. I feel it has much meaning. Also in that way you can feel much better, the feeling of the purification. Then, when you do like this, then also, purifying like this, receiving the knowledge of the holy speech, then red light coming from Guru Shakyamuni Buddha’s throat, if that is the visualization, purifying all the negative karma, the delusion, the negative karma of speech and receiving the knowledge of the holy speech. Then when you do like this at the heart, blue light coming, and purifying all the delusions, negative karmas of the mind, and sickness, like this it becomes non-existent, even then. Non-existent. This can be done. Must have the feeling of being purified, this kind of feeling, otherwise, not much benefit. If it doesn’t take too much time, then sometimes also think of your other previous lives, and feel that any previous live’s illness in the body, and the negative karma of speech, body, and mind was also purified by this. If it is uncomfortable to feel at the same time, then first you feel for yourself, then afterwards you feel that others are also purified like this. Then put your two feet together and make prostration. There are two types, short prostration, long prostration, or complete prostration and short prostration—contracted, what you call short—prostration, then the long one is when you lay down your whole body. Then, as your hand touches on the ground, hand or the forehead, then your hand make the prostration like this, then you get up. When you get up, do so without dragging hand on the floor, just softly, without dragging, then you get up. Generally, whether you do short prostration or long prostration, when you get up, you have to get up very quickly. That signifies getting up from samsara, so that has to be quick, not taking much time. Not like sort of resting, lying down and resting. Not like that. And also and then resting by lying down like that, resting, also becomes dissatisfaction, too. Not like this, which is like animals they relax like this. Not like that, which creates karma to be like this. Then also when you stand up, the body has to be straight, should be straight.

There are karmas which are also created because of that, person creates karma to be born as animals which have backside kind of not straight, by not getting up quickly and laying down just like this, for a long time, maybe. Also animals also animals who don’t have any legs but their stomach and everything they use as leg to pull their body. Anyway, the visualization is like this. One way of explaining the benefits is to imagine you have as many bodies as there are atoms at the end of the earth, and as you make prostrations above the earth every atom at the end of the earth is covered by your body, down to the end, the very last level. How many atoms are there, the same as the number of those atoms, you create merits same as the number of atoms. Thousand fortunes, that much you received by making prostration. One way of explaining the benefit of merits like this.

Then, the seven-limb practice, like this, generally, whenever you make offering, if you can remember seven-limb practice, if you can say seven-limb prayer, whether you say loudly or not, if you can remember seven-limb prayer, think of the meaning, the most important thing is to think of the meaning. Even you are saying the short prayer, but if you think of the meaning, then it’s the same. Seven-limb practice is extremely important. That is the basic, the fundamental purifying method in creating merits. All tantra is extremely important. That is the basic fundamental purifying and creating merits. In all the puja, whenever there’s a puja or the meditation that is done, at the beginning there’s always the seven-limb practice. The seven-limb practice, that is the fundamental thing. Then there’s different ways, just a matter of amplifying the way you think. Sometimes prayer is short, sometimes very long prayer. Without depending on the seven-limb practice there’s no way to receive realizations, no way to receive enlightenment—it’s impossible. Maitreya Buddha, he received enlightenment quickly. That is due to the power of seven-limb practice. He’s made seven-limb practice three times, and all the time, every day, practicing the seven-limb practice morning, and in the noontime, and in evening time. Three times the seven-limb practice, by this power he received enlightenment quickly. Why, when at the lama’s puja so many things we use, so many offerings we use? Why? That is because of the relation to Vajrayana technique. It includes the seven-limb practice. It is because of the seven-limb practice. The seven-limb practice, which is the relation to Vajrayana and Vajrayana teaching, that is why they use so many things, why so many things they blow, like this.

Like the watch. If there’s something missing the watch cannot become perfect, doesn’t work well. Like that, all the seven practices are necessary to receive enlightenment. Without depending upon the purifying practice, prostration and the seven-limb practice—seven-limb practice itself contains prostration—the mandala offering, without depending on this fundamental method, that is like the seed that which doesn’t have soil and doesn’t have water, nothing, and so there’s no way to grow , to produce stem, impossible to produce a stem. Like that, without depending on these fundamental practices, purifying methods, seven-limb practice, offering mandala, and so on, it is extremely difficult to receive realizations. Because the mind has to be ripened like the fruit ripens. To eat the fruit, the fruit has to be ripened. So like this, to receive realizations, mind has to be ripened. The purifying practice is very important to quickly reach the realizations. How the person quickly reaches the realization, it depends so much how much the person does this fundamental practice, the offering mandala and the seven-limb practice. Depends so much how much the person makes purifications, this practice.

Person who is not doing so much of this, who doesn’t care so much of this purifying practice, just only learning lot of words, usually difficult. Even the person knows the words, mind is like a rock. Very difficult. No matter how much the person hears teaching, lam-rim teaching, no matter how much he hears, hundred times, never change the mind, mind is always like rock. That is due to not making much purification. In Tibet, lama’s saying like this, this is very interesting. Usually in Tibet the very dried animal skin leather, you put butter on it and put in the sun, then you polish it. You put butter all over it and it absorbs and the skin becomes soft. Then you polish, then you subdue it with the feet from outside, then it becomes so soft, then it is easy to make. My teacher taught me this. He used to make shoes and many other things. Also to eat tsampa in a round animal skin, round and square, then you put tsampa and tea and then you don’t have to put your hand thing like in the tsampa, you put like this and you rub. Not rich people, only for poor people. Although the butter is used to soften the leather, the butterskin, which holds so much butter, never softened. However, we are saying like this, the very tough leather can be subdued by oil, but butter skin cannot be subdued by butter. In Tibet they put the butter in a very tough skin, like you do here with cheese, and even though there is so much butter inside, the skin is always so tough. Relating this to the mind mean that however much that person listens to teaching, the mind never gets trained or subdued. When the mind degenerates you do not get so much feeling from the meditation.

Anything, each of the freedoms, each of the richnesses—think about each of the eighteen things. They are like eighteen universes with eighteen worlds full of jewels. Think how you feel when the ordinary materials, such as things made of bone or wood, are lost, how great a loss you feel. Then think, what about losing the eighteen worlds full of jewels? Aren’t these more precious?

When you get the strong feeling of loss, understanding the value, think that the ordinary things cannot help you to not be born in the suffering lower realms, or to release you from samsara to enlightenment. But each of the freedoms and richnesses can help you.

As you build the feeling of preciousness and loss gradually like this, the feeling of loss becomes so strong, so it helps in two ways. There is nothing more precious than this. One way is to feel strongly how precious it is, and one way is to feel that you do not want to waste it or lose it. The mind feels rejoicefulness, happy, like the beggar finding the diamond in the street, when you have received the realization of this meditation.

There are ways to check up, but just like the painting, first you make the rough line, then afterward you beautify it with the details. If one desires a perfect human rebirth in the future, here is the chance. Observe the cause, morality. If one desires perfect enjoyments in the future, create the cause, charity. If one wants to have perfect surroundings, servants, and relatives, then create the cause by practicing patience. Many people are not surrounded by desirable people, or harmonious people—this is due to previous karma, not observing patience. If one wishes to obtain perfect human rebirth, or to meet the perfect teacher or the perfect teaching, one can create this cause with the precious human rebirth by practicing morality, charity, and making pure prayers. Doing checking meditation like this is very good.

In other realms such as the narak realm, how difficult it is. Check up. No matter how long the beings live, billions of years, all the life passes in suffering, no chance to observe morality. Even just one precept, how difficult it is. There is no chance to make charity. There is no chance to pray. Incredible, unbelievable suffering. Just in the meditation course book there are some examples of narak and preta suffering as explained in the sutra teaching by Guru Shakyamuni Buddha. This is just for us to have some idea how these beings are suffering. If you read that, there will be rough idea. Then it is easy in the meditation to feel it. Same like this, how difficult it is in the preta, in the animal realm, in sura and asura realms.

Even in the human realm for those who have not received a precious human rebirth, how difficult it is. You can meditate like this. Check up how difficult it is to create the cause simply to be born in the human realm. The number of beings who have human rebirth are so little compared to the number of beings who haven’t creates the cause for precious human rebirth. Comparing these two is almost like getting lost.

Then, the precious human rebirth is highly meaningful to achieve the ultimate goal. If I desire to achieve nirvana, I can do it by creating the cause for the precious human rebirth, moral conduct. That is based on renunciation of samsara, renouncing the mind of negative actions and renouncing the mind of worldly activity related to the evil thoughts of the worldly dharmas. But to create this is extremely difficult, especially in the three lower realms, and even in the realm of the gods. Even if some other human continents they cannot receive ordination, then of course especially difficult for other rebirths. Without moral conduct there is no higher training of concentration, and without that there is no Vipassana. Without that there is no way to receive nirvana.

The precious human rebirth is highly meaningful to obtain the ultimate goal because with this precious human rebirth one can practice the path, and receive enlightenment.

[Ge wa di… Dedication prayers]

LECTURE 23:  November 27, 1975

I must receive enlightenment for the benefit of mother sentient beings, therefore I am going to listen to the profound teachings on the graduated path to enlightenment. The listening subject is the Mahayana teaching which leads the fortunate ones to enlightenment. It is well expounded by the great philosophers Nagarjuna and Asanga. It is the profound teaching it is the essence of the great pandits, Atisha and the great Lama Tsongkhapa’s knowledge, the infinite knowledge that contains the essence of all the 84,000 teachings shown by Guru Shakyamuni Buddha. All the teaching are set up for the gradual practice of one person achieving enlightenment. This is the only path through which the past, present, and future buddhas have received enlightenment.

The commentary to this graduated path to enlightenment has four basic outlines. The last one is how to lead the disciple in the actual teaching. This has two outlines-the last one is how to train the mind in the graduated path to enlightenment by following the guru. Then that has two parts. How to take the essence of the perfect human rebirth. This is involved in two things Before the actual method for taking the essence, how to take the essence with the perfect human rebirth, then, before that comes the clear meditation on perfect human rebirth, usefulness of perfect human rebirth and difficulty of obtaining the perfect human rebirth. This meditation persuades the mind to take the essence of the perfect human rebirth.

First of all it is necessary to recognize the perfect human rebirth. That is, if one does not recognize the perfect human rebirth, it is like this, like one person has a diamond and that person is starving, but because of not recognizing that he has a diamond, believing, “I am poor,” believing that he has nothing—actually he is rich. He can sell the diamond and he can make lots of money, and he can buy things that he wants, he can release from all these temporal problems. Also there is danger. The person who doesn’t recognize the diamond, even though no matter how much it is precious for the people who know it is diamond, for the one who does not know if there is anger and he throws it out or that he doesn’t take care. Like this, the person who received the perfect human rebirth is like the example having the diamond. Not recognizing the usefulness of the perfect human rebirth then feeling incapable and always thinking there is nothing better, there is nothing better with this life, nothing better, no way to make the life higher, you know, better, or more beneficial, you know. The person can’t understand how the method is beneficial, is useful for his life, like that. So it is almost like that person who doesn’t recognize he has a diamond, he doesn’t think “I am a fool, I am a terrible fool,” because for that person there is no difference between having diamond and not having diamond. As he cannot see the value of the diamond, he can’t see the diamond. It is like not even having diamond. Not understanding the benefit of that is like not having the perfect human rebirth.

Then about the existence of the teaching, just a little bit to clarify that is like this. The resultant teaching, the actual teaching, that is the realization of the higher being who has received the path, the fully seeing path. That is the resultant teaching as it is explained in the teachings. There are two teachings, one teaching is realizations and one teaching is oral teachings, the intellectual understanding, you know, understanding the words. Like this, generally it is divided in two. The realization and then having the intellectual understanding of the teachings, like this. First having the oral teachings, having the teachings for the understanding of the words, the valuable teachings, then the realizations come in the mind. The realization comes in the mind, but even though the main thing is the realization which comes from controlling the mind, in order for that to happen it depends on the verbal teaching, which establishes this teaching in the mind.

Then, even though we don’t have realizations achieved, even though we don’t have that teaching, when teaching realization is not existing, the oral teaching, the intellectual understanding of the Tripitaka, then also living in the precepts, living in the ordination, that is also an understanding which exists by reaching within the minds of others, within mind if others such as the other holy beings, holy beings such as one’s own gurus. So generally if one’s knowledge, if one’s Dharma knowledge is developing, one’s own Dharma knowledge, that is a sign of progression. If one’s own understanding is lost, that is a sign of degeneration. If one is concerned to spread the teachings in the world, the most important thing is to not degenerate the teaching, one’s own teaching in one’s own mind, and to try to progress as much as possible. Benefiting the teachings, especially like being a monk or nun, you know, the most important thing is first of all to take care of one’s own teachings, one’s own mind.

The teaching exists within the minds of living beings, not just in the books, in libraries full of books, and the people having no understanding at all. The realization, the experience, and people living in the precepts and having understanding of the Dharma words, developing the teaching within one’s own mind, this is the spreading of Dharma. If there is no teaching existing in the minds of others, it is difficult for oneself to learn Dharma perfectly. So entering the teachings can be keeping the eight precepts, keeping the ordination—this is a good example in the present time. This is really entering the teachings, since following this teaching is not just trying to understand like they do in universities, about the history of religion and so forth. It’s good to learn Dharma words, but it is necessary to follow the teachings—it cannot just be words without anything inside.

A perfect example is, having met the teachings, taking refuge, and then on that basis taking ordination. This is an example of the mind meeting the teachings.

LECTURE 24: November 29, 1975
[Incomplete Transcript]

As it is said in the guru practice prayer, “By receiving the firm understanding that the change of the life and body is like a water bubble, quickly becoming decayed, remember death. After death, just like the shadow follows the body, oneself is followed by the white and black karma, so one has to avoid the collection of the vices, even the subtle. To avoid the collections of the vices, even the subtle ones, and to be able to obtain all the collections of virtue, oh, please grant me blessing to be always careful. Besides knowing I am doing virtuous action, and that this is negative action, just knowing is not enough. One should protect oneself, away from creating that negative action. Please grant me blessing, to be always careful in what to avoid, having those basic, firm understandings.”

After death one is not free, we have no choice what rebirth we take. Also wherever the karma leads, wherever the body goes, the shadow follows. For instance like wherever the man pulls the rope, with the buffalo in the nose, wherever the man pulls, the animal has to come. Like that, the karma. Wherever the karma leads, we have to follow, we have no choice, we have no choice, no control...To take rebirth without following karma, praying to receive blessing for that.

To have those basic understandings, that depends on wisdom to understand virtues and accumulating virtues, and having energy to do this, that depends on practicing meditation, the meditation on the graduated path to enlightenment. That depends on listening.

So before listening to the teaching it is necessary to cultivate the pure motivation, “I must lead all the mother sentient beings in the most sublime happiness. By myself to be able to do this, I must receive enlightenment first, therefore I am going to listen to the profound teaching on the graduated path to enlightenment. The listening subject is the Mahayana teaching which leads the fortunate ones to enlightenment. It is well expounded by the Nagarjuna and Asanga. Oh, it is the profound teaching essence of the great Atisha, the Dharma king of the three worlds ...

[Transcript ends]

LECTURE 25:  December 2, 1975

Oh, just a bit, then, in this prayer according to the translation that is being done, before this visualization, for the beginner, one can try to make visualization as explained. The object of refuge is described here. I thought I would not copy modern teaching with the vows, but according to different lamas they can visualize differently, but the general visualization is the same. However according to Guru Shakyamuni Buddha’s yoga purification you can visualize like that, as it’s described in the prayer.

There’s many details also in that talk about visualizing different teachings, many things like this. However, usually we just visualize Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, the whole visualization just one aspect Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, just one total aspect. That does not mean we are only taking partisanship, only visualizing Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, but not visualizing Manjushri or Maitreya. We’re just taking the total aspect of Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, the founder of the present buddhadharma. We should not think of one physical buddha, Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, separate from Manjushri, from all the numberless buddhas. There is no such buddha separate like this.

Separation is a wrong conception. There is no buddha like this, whatever aspect of the buddha, the essence is the buddha’s omniscient mind. There’s no one aspect of Guru Shakyamuni Buddha which is not a transformation of Maitreya, or Manjushri, or Tara, or Avalokiteshvara. The essence of Guru Shakyamuni Buddha’s mind is oneness with all the buddhas, so as it is like this from the side of the buddha, as their omniscient mind with all the omniscient mind of all the Buddhas, from our side we should visualize or we should think of them as total.

All the essence of buddha appeared in one aspect, called Guru Shakyamuni Buddha. Every time we visualize we should think like this. If you do this, while you’re visualizing your mind has much feeling, you don’t feel, “I’m visualizing Guru Shakyamuni Buddha all the time, I’m not visualizing you know, Manjushri or I’m not visualizing, you know Maitreya Buddha or something. If I don’t pray maybe they feel upset, thinking they are like some ordinary people.” Then Lama kyab.su.chi.wo, Lama kuab.su.chi.wo. First taking refuge in the guru, then afterward taking refuge in the Triple Gem. So Lama kyab.su.chi.wo. Without the guru, Guru Shakyamuni could not receive enlightenment. This is one example. Then Naropa, the great yogi who received enlightenment, and the great Milarepa’s teacher, Marpa. There’s not even the name “Buddha” before the guru.

This is my own understanding, the way I think, so you have to check up. Possible I make mistake. So without guru there’s no buddha that can enlighten sentient beings. So the guru is more kind than buddha. Because of that, taking refuge in the guru comes first. Then if there’s no buddha, there wouldn’t be Dharma or Sangha. So these three come from the guru, and because of this reason without the guru, buddha cannot enlighten sentient beings. The guru is the originator, the root. Like the refuge prayer we say in the morning, “Lama sangye, lama cho..”

When you understand this, you understand very clearly the meaning of the food offering. If you keep the outline it may be helpful for the future. If you have the words in your mind, even though it’s not clear now, afterward you can check and you can have deeper understanding. So we have negative karma that has been created with the guru, not necessarily only in this present life, but possibly in previous lifetimes, so this purification needs to be done not only in relation to this life, but also in relation to previous lifetimes. There may be difficulties of beating the guru, disrespecting the guru, abusing with speech and with mind, insulting, arising heresy, criticizing, breaking the guru’s orders. Negativities created with body, speech, and mind. So renounce these as negative, and the white light comes, purifying all the negative karma that has been collected from previous lifetimes, then yellow light coming, receiving the knowledge of the guru’s holy body, speech, and mind. Taking refuge in the Buddha, visualizing Guru Shakyamuni, no need to change that manifestation. You should think that he is like an actor, taking a form, but who is that person really? Like your father comes in a beggar’s disguise.

[Break in transcript]

It is difficult to generate strong compassion for all samsaric beings. Because you will see, you will project in the same way, you would think that other living beings who are living in samsara, who don’t have at the moment terrible sufferings, the gross ordinary suffering, like disease or terrible wars or things like that, terrible situations, those who don’t experience like this, those who enjoy as they want, with such pleasure as they want, with such possessions as they want, with such surroundings as they want, you will see like this. It is difficult to see these living beings how they are suffering in samsara, one cannot feel this.

Then, samsara is not concrete, samsara is not a house, samsara is not a city, samsara is not clothes, not jacket, not pants, not lay person’s clothes, samsara is not soap, nothing of this is samsara. Some people may think, “The West is samsara, but the East is not samsara, Tibet is not samsara. Where there’s only noises, traffic noises, things like that, that is samsara.” Two weeks ago when I was sitting in my room, somebody was talking outside the window, somebody was walking through and was talking, one was asking what is samsara, one was giving answer, “Samsara is outside world.” One was explaining, “Samsara is outside world.” I just heard in my room. I think two boys were talking like this, outside world. I didn’t see their bodies, hand doing like this, but the visualization came like this.

If the samsara is there, just only in the West, then all the sentient beings who are not in the West, they are free from samsara, they should be. They should be free from samsara. Then every time when you fly from East, coming to the East, then by having money, just by having ticket you become free from samsara, it’s like this. “Outside world is samsara,” that means the person is not, maybe he doesn’t have his own samsara, maybe he borrowed from some other person’s samsara—anyway, I’m joking. However, it’s interesting.

However, nothing of this is samsara. Each person, each suffering sentient being, each ignorant sentient being has its own samsara, like this. Then you check up what is samsara. That’s all. You meditate on that.

[Ge wa di… Dedication prayers]