So now exactly the same, the aggregates form is not the I, aggregates the consciousness is not the I, aggregates cognition is not the I, the compounding aggregates is not the I, aggregates the feeling is not the I. None of this is I. Even the whole group together, even the five aggregates all together, even that is not the I. So neither each of the aggregates is the I nor even the whole group is the I. And third thing is, what exists, I which exists is what is merely labeled by the mind. What exists is the I which is merely labeled by the mind, so even that you cannot find on these aggregates, base. Even this merely labeled I, I which exists is what is merely labeled by the mind, but even this you cannot find on these aggregates, on this base, cannot find anywhere. Even the merely labeled one doesn't exist on these aggregates, on this base.
So therefore, how can one find the I which is not merely labeled by the mind, how can one find this? Even the merely labeled I you cannot find on these aggregates, on this base, so how can you find the I which is not merely labeled by the mind? No way. There's no way to find this on these aggregates. That is the false I. So I not merely labeled by the mind means existing from its own side, so that means independent, so that inherently existent, independent I, that is the false I, that I appearing to our mind, which we believe, apprehend, which one's own mind hold on to that, hold so a hundred percent, so intensely holding on to that, so that is totally false, object to be refuted and that is non-existent.
So the conclusion is that even the merely labeled I, one cannot find on these aggregates, base, aggregates, so how can one find the I which is not merely labeled by the mind? No way. This is totally non-existent. The merely labeled I you cannot find on these aggregates, the base, but you can find in the world, you can find in Malaysia, you can find now in Malaysia, you can find in - what's it called this area? So you can find the merely labeled I in Genting Highlands , in Chanting Highlands. You can find in this building. But you cannot find on these aggregates. But the I not merely labeled by mind you cannot find neither, this one cannot be found neither on the aggregates nor anywhere, neither on this nor anywhere, so that means totally non-existent. So that, I which appeared and which one hold on to, that which is not merely labeled by the mind, so the total negation of total non-existence of that, so this, so totally empty, so this is the ultimate nature of the I. [pause]
So you see now, as you remember, again there's nothing there, even the I, nothing there on the aggregates, just only the mind just made up the idea, the label. There's nothing there.
Another example that, when we drive car in the road, there's green light, blue light - there's no blue light . There's only two lights, no? Oh, there's yellow one? There's no black light . I think black light which means to meditate. Anyway, I'm joking.
So anyway, so you see another example that, so there's no E on that design, base, there's no E there at all. Just one's own idea, mind, just made up the label because there's such a design there. Because of this design. So similar now, [pause] there is a phenomenon there you see which is not labeled blue or white or yellow, any other color. So if it's nighttime then also dispel the darkness, does that function, that phenomenon which is not labeled any other color, yellow, white, black or other color. So you see this particular phenomenon first, then that makes your mind to choose the particular label, red color.
Then you believe in your own label, red color, the red light. You believe in your own label, then the red light, then you have appearance of red light, that this is red light, you have appearance, then you see that this is red light, only after all this happened, at the end you see that this is a red light.
So again here, same, that means, now here you have to understand, your mind, in order to choose this particular label, red light, you have to see something first, you have to see one particular phenomenon first, that particular phenomenon first. So that what you see first is the base; it's not red light.
What you see first is not red light, it's the base. Then, after seeing that, then you see red light afterwards. You see the red light afterwards. So even this there's a graduate. So that means what you're seeing first is not red light. What you're seeing first, that particular phenomenon, it's not red light. So the particular phenomenon which causes your mind to make up the particular label, red light, that is not red light, that is the base. So again, because of that, your mind just make up the idea, just make up the label, red light.
So here the conclusion to understand is, so that is the base, there's no red light there, so there's the base, so there's no red light there, on the base, on that particular phenomenon there's no red light. Like the E, like this design, on this design, this base, there's no E, same, exactly. On the aggregates there's no I, exactly the same. There's no red light there. Red light is what, there is a red light, but red light is not there, on that base. Red light is what is merely imputed by one's own mind. But in the daily life we are not aware in this reality. We don't see the red light in that way. What appears and what we apprehend is totally, the red light totally opposite, the label, red light, undifferentiable from the base, that particular phenomenon or that there is a red light on that base, so totally hallucination.
So like this with all the rest of the phenomena, just here, we just look at the flower, we see flower there. We are not aware the flower is merely imputed by the mind, just an idea; we see flower there on the base. We see red here, or maybe you don't see , anyway, so the red color cloth, so when we talk about, when we look at the red cloth, when we see the red cloth, we see red there, like the red light, we see red there on the base, which is not there, in reality it's not there on the base, totally doesn't exist there, non-existent there. The red, the label, doesn't exist, totally non-existent there on the base. It's just what is merely imputed by the mind. The red cloth, what is merely imputed by the mind.
So wherever we look at now, form, whichever phenomenon we look at, if we look at the book we see the book there, on the base. We see the book there on the base. We see the floor, we see the carpet, the carpet, which is the label, we see there, on the base. On the hair, all this put together, weaved, the base. So we don't see the carpet merely imputed…
…it appeared to us carpet on that base, there's carpet on that base, there's carpet there.
So when we look at the tree, again tree, we don't see, we don't differentiate the base of the tree and label tree, we are not aware. We have appearance that there's tree on the base.
So wherever we look at, form, sound, smell, taste, tangible, all the phenomena, wherever, all these sense objects, so everything like this, so everything is totally false, all these, everything seeing, appearing, there on the base, all these are totally hallucinations, all these are false, all there are objects to be refuted, all these are false, hallucinations, that means totally empty, totally non-existent, empty. So when we meditate, no form, no sound, no smell, no taste, no tangible object, no nose, no tongue, no body, no mind, the four noble truths and the five aggregates, the four noble truths there's no, no, no, no true suffering, no true cause of suffering, no cessation, no true path, then no to each aggregate, no twelve sources, the twelve senses, then the twelve, the sense objects, then eighteen elements, so all these in the Heart Sutra this no, no, no, no, so where it says no, no, no, all this, using the word no on the top of the right target, the old view that we have. So even everything is merely imputed by the mind but, the way it exists, but everything is not appearing in that way, appearing everything there on the base, which means, so that itself, if it is on the base, if it is there, everything is there on the base means, that itself means existing from its own side, inherently existent, that means independent, so that means all this, the whole thing, the whole entire life, the whole thing the way it appears to us and the way we believe totally hallucination and non-existent, empty.
So no, like atomic bomb or like missile on the object of ignorance, which doesn't exist, so we use no on these things which doesn't exist, to be able to see emptiness, we use no on all these refuting objects, to see that's non-existent, empty.
So to make it, to get some easier example, that it's [pause], so anything, to clarify again, including the I, any phenomenon that which appears from there, anything that is appearing from there, so all those are object to be refuted, anything that which is appearing from there, all those are object to be refuted, appearing from there and our mind hold on to that, believe that, all those are object to be refuted, all those are empty, so the conclusion is that.
So other, some simple examples, what we have to realize is empty, what is the object to be refuted and what we have to realize is empty, I that which is non-existent, so that is when there is danger of car accident, when the car accident is about to happen or when it happens or when it's about to happen, so suddenly so that time the I which doesn't exist, the emotional I, the false I, the I appearing not merely labeled by the mind, it is there all the time, we have this hallucination all the time, but and because not having trained in meditation, so not aware normally in other times when there's not some circumstance which makes so excited, so happy or something makes, something terrifies, causes fear or when there's not those conditions, difficult, not easy to see that, not easy to see the false I, to recognize, so when there's about to have car accident or having car accident, so due to that condition then the emotional I, in the Western term, in Dharma, what it says, object to be refuted, the I which is object to be refuted, inherently existent I, but in the Western term, emotional I, so other times unnoticeable, but during those conditions then the emotional I becomes very strong, very gross or very strong, very strongly appears, there's a real I on the aggregates there, something's going to happen to this, some terrible thing is going to happen to this I, real I on these aggregates. So that is another example, clear. So that time, that emotional I so that is false I and that is what we have to realize is empty.
Also, when we fall down from the mountains or from cliffs or when we are about to fall down or when we fall down, during those times, you don't think the body is falling down, you don't think that. During the times you don't think the body is falling down. The appearance that you have is that this real I is going to fall down, this I, this real I existing without depending on the thought which makes up the label, without depending on that, without depending on the aggregates, the base, without depending on any of these, all these cause and conditions, without depending on any of these, there's a real I existing from there. So this is going to fall down, something is going to happen to this, so very strong, a very strong emotional I, so something is going to happen to this, so when we are about to fall down or when falling down, so again that is the false I, which doesn't exist.
Similar, when somebody provoke, when somebody says, somebody blames you that which you haven't done, accuses you, so then, "He blamed me! That I haven't done this, he blamed me!" So the mind can't stand blamed me , blamed me, that can't stand, the body physically expressing, the speech talking that even the hands grabbing things, anyway , showing can't stand, he blamed me. Blamed me, the real I, so during that time how the I appears to you is a real I, independent one that, without depending on thought labeling and base, aggregates, without depending on any of these things, something independent one, real one. So getting upset and angry, this person's hurting to me, which actually doesn't exist there, that real I, the emotional I, thinking that the person is hurting to this I, which is the emotional I, which doesn't exist.
So however so during those times when somebody provoke, when somebody accuses, so again the emotional I so strongly, so there's another example what is false I, that which doesn't exist, refuting object, which we have to realize that it's non-existent, empty. So totally, I mean this can be, within this there can be many different levels of hallucination, according to the different schools, the four different schools, and with the last Madhyamika school, which has two, so according to their, each school's different point of view of the refuting object, all the hallucinations will be there, but however, so if we realize total non-existence of the I existing, something existing from its own side or not merely labeled by mind, the total non-existence of that, if one is able to realize this then that's realizing the ultimate nature of the I.
So that's why when the lamas give the mahamudra commentary, so there's some traditions, the lamas they send the people in the forest to look for the I , there's nothing to look I outside, but I think probably the, it looks a little bit strange to look for the I outside, but I think what it means is that there's nothing to look for outside, you cannot find, there's no I in the forest, but I think the technique is that you go in the forest so sometimes fear rises, fear, due to certain conditions fear arises, so then the some condition to rise fear, so those times the emotional I becomes strong, becomes gross, so then, so what is needed is to recognize this, this false I which one need to realize is non-existent, so for that method.
Similar, this very powerful practice called chod, Slaying the Ego, so this powerful practice, which involves inviting spirits, invoking spirits and then you give your, you make your body charity to the spirits, first of all transform in nectar and then make offering to the guru-Triple Gem, then all then sentient beings then other one is the bones, flesh, all, mountains, you give charity to the spirits. Then meditate on emptiness, emptiness of the I. So invoke, the chod practice, which is the means to create violence around you, invoking spirits and to create violence, violent environment, then that makes to rise, it makes the emotional I, the false I, that which is object to be refuted, to become clear, to rise very strong, to become strong, so that one can recognize very clearly the false I, the object to be refuted, one can recognize clearly, so then once you recognize that [snaps fingers], then it's just a minute to, that this is what is called object to be refuted, then it's just a minute to realize emptiness. So this is a quick way to realize emptiness, this chod practice, or Slaying the Ego. The other one is very brave practice of bodhicitta, exchanging oneself for others.
So I mention the very last one and then I stop there. [pause]
So as it's mentioned in the Heart Sutra, form is empty, emptiness is form, there's no emptiness other than form, there's no form other than emptiness. So relating to the [pause], so the form, these aggregates [pause], so what is the form is what is merely imputed by the mind, relating to the base to be labeled form, aggregate of form, so there are five aggregates, so that is the base, then the mind merely labeled the aggregates, here the general aggregates, after having gathered the five aggregates then mind merely labeled aggregates. So, what is the aggregates is what is merely labeled by the mind, so there is no real aggregates appearing from there or existing from its own side or not merely labeled by mind, so that is object to be refuted, that is a complete hallucination, doesn't exist, that one is totally non-existent, empty, so form is empty means that. So inherently existent form is totally empty, the real form appearing from there, the real form, the aggregates, appearing from there that is totally hallucination, non-existent, totally empty, not even slightest even atom exists, not even slightest atom of that exists. [pause]
So, now emptiness is form. So while you are one-pointedly concentrating seeing that form is empty, that the form is empty of existing from its own side, the inherently existent form, the real form appearing from there is totally non-existent, empty, so while you are seeing that, as a result, effect or as a result of that is it's not that form is non-existent, form exists. Form exists how? Exists in mere name. After having realized emptiness of form, as a result you see, what you see is, what you discover is that the form is not non-existent; it exists, it exists in mere name. So, subtle dependent arising. The form exists but it exists in mere name, subtle dependent arising. So, relating to the aggregates, thought making the label form, the form exists in mere name.
So this is what you see, so you don't discover at the end, form doesn't exist. You discover form exists, but exists in mere name. So while you are realizing, discovering that the form exists in mere name, being merely labeled by the mind, relating to the aggregates, at the same time you see the form does not exist from its own side, empty, so while you are seeing the form existing, dependent arising, you see it's empty. So while you are seeing the form is empty, you see it is existing, dependent arising.
So the emptiness is form, it should come, when you realize form is empty, the emptiness is form should come in your heart naturally. Emptiness is form, this understanding should come as a result in your heart, this understanding should come, this experience should come as a result by seeing the form is empty.
So this shows, there is no emptiness other than form, no form other than emptiness, here this part shows the Middle Way view, devoid of nihilism and eternalism. Nihilism, nothing exists, there's no form, nothing exists, so devoid of that nihilism. Eternalism is, if it exists then it should be inherently existent, so also devoid of that eternalism. So this way of seeing, you see the form unified of emptiness and dependent arising, so this way of realizing emptiness of the form, you are seeing the Middle Way, devoid of the two extremes. So this one shows, there are two truths, the form, conventional truth and emptiness of form, that which is absolute truth, these two truths is one in essence, different label but one in essence, it shows that, the form is empty, emptiness is form. When you realize, you realize these two truths is one in essence, different in the label, and you see middle view devoid of the two extremes.
So only with this realization, realize emptiness which is unified with dependent arising, this is the only way to cut ignorance, the root of samsara, then only way to be liberated from the oceans of the whole entire samsara, the samsaric suffering, suffering of the desire realm, form realm, formless realm, even those higher samsaric realms, to be liberated from all those sufferings, then not only that, by accompanying with the bodhicitta, with the support of bodhicitta, then by collecting extensive merit, then one is able to, the wisdom is able to cease the subtle defilements, the subtle imprint left by the ignorance, the simultaneously born concept of inherent existence and dual view, so one is able to cease by the wisdom realizing emptiness being direct remedy then supported by bodhicitta, those methods, then one is able to achieve full enlightenment, then one is able to achieve the ultimate goal of the life, to be able to do perfect work towards all sentient beings, free them from all the suffering and bring them in full enlightenment.
So anyway, so this is just the essence. So just to get a few examples how to do meditation, how to do analysis. Otherwise, the four-point analysis, if you missed out the very first one, if the first one is not clear your target that we have to hit, that you have to destroy, that you have to realize is empty, if that is not clear, then how many reasons, you do analysis all day long, days, weeks, months, years, analysis, meditating on emptiness, which you believe that you are meditating on emptiness, so it can be completely, you can missed out the whole point, so many years, years or even whole life, if the very first one, if one is unable to, if one cannot recognize the unmistaken object to be refuted, then one believe I am meditating on emptiness all the time, but the whole life can be wasted because you missed out the target. To hit all the logics, to hit right on top of that, you missed out the point, so there's danger, besides nothing happening to the mind, no realization of emptiness, not even fear, even a little fear touching the false I or the object of ignorance, touching to this point, this might be hallucination, then fear start to rise, so even without a touch on the object of ignorance, then whole life you believe you are meditating on emptiness but the whole life it actually didn't become meditation on emptiness, there's a danger like this.
So I think that's about it . So anyway, if there's time then maybe later can be continued on the prayer, later if there's time continue on the words, like did this morning, but the essence is what I spoke, the heart, the most important I introduced.
So we dedicate now all the merits we have collected during this time, during the retreat.
Due to all the past, present, future merits collected by oneself, by Buddhas, bodhisattvas, sentient beings, may the bodhicitta be generated within one's own mind and in the minds of all sentient beings; that which has been generated may it be increased.
Please dedicate all the merits collected by oneself, Buddhas, bodhisattvas, sentient beings, may the Buddha of Compassion in human form, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, who is the source of all the happiness of all sentient beings and object of refuge of all sentient beings, to have stable life, all the holy wishes to be fulfilled immediately and then the rest of all the other holy beings from different traditions, who work for sentient beings, same thing to happen and then particularly Lama Yeshe, who is kinder than all the three time Buddhas, to me, that to the organization that whose actions are still benefiting towards so many sentient beings, us, so many sentient beings even after he passed away, through the organization, so his actions benefiting towards us many sentient beings, so Lama Osel, his incarnation, Lama Osel Rinpoche, to have stable life and like Lama Tsongkhapa able to have all the qualities, to show all the qualities and to benefit like sky.