Teachings from Guadalajara: Days 1 - 4 (Audio and Unedited Transcript)

By Kyabje Lama Zopa Rinpoche
Guadalajara, Mexico, 2008 (Archive #1700)

Days 1-4 of an eight-day series of lam-rim teachings by Lama Zopa Rinpoche in Guadalajara, Mexico, in April, 2008.  You can listen to days 5-8 here.

You can also read an edited version of this series here, and listen online to the public talk that Rinpoche gave prior to this series.

Day 4: Merely Labeled I

Based on her question that about whether the base is also merely labeled by mind or not. So anyway, from the I all the way down to the atoms and particles of the atoms, so however, that, and then, even that very, the particles of atoms, however the, in the reality, nothing exists from its own side, totally empty, even those subtle atoms.

Then similar the consciousness, and then the, so there’s consciousness from rebirth, the continuation of consciousness, up to enlightenment, or even up to enlightenment, there’s always continuation of consciousness, from life to life, then this life, continuity of consciousness of this life, so, from birth up to now, continuity, and then up to how many years, your age, so continuity of consciousness, then or one year, then twelve months, then the, one month, then four weeks, one week, so you analyze like that, one day, twenty-four hours, then, the second, hour, minute, then the seconds, split seconds.

So the, similar, also the consciousness, same. There is no, Prasangika, ?impartial, then same, split seconds, split seconds of consciousness, finer and finer, so again, same, nothing even very subtle self, however, nothing exists from its own side, because as I mentioned, after analyzing that, what’s called split second of consciousness, that’s a name, what is called this and that, mere name, came from the mind, so the name is given by the mind, so it’s imputed by mind, merely imputed, not even imputed but merely imputed by mind, so when you say, merely, it doesn’t exist at all, from its own side, so meditating, looking at it empty.

So, from the I, self, down to the very split seconds, all that, it’s all empty. So, that, all empty. But, all empty but it’s not saying it doesn’t exist, so the, so, anyway, so you meditate on that as long as you can, those. Then also you have to analyze, the feeling, there’s also feeling, if you want to do one by one, you do the form, then feeling, then cognition, the happy feeling, pleasant feeling, so feeling, so the happy feeling, unhappy feeling, suffering feeling, then the indifferent feeling. So, in Tibetan called ?sem tsin pai nam pa chen, like that, happy feeling, ?tsin pai nam pa chen, so the suffering feeling is, ?ma tsin pai, so I think they’re describing the very characteristic of the happy mind, the feeling, very characteristic of that. I guess happy is, ?tsin pa, so maybe more, more satisfied, the aspect of feeling. The ?ma tsin pa is more unpleasant. So more pleasant feeling, like that, it’s not exact the Tibetan term but it’s pleasant feeling, happy feeling. So it’s something that more, more calm or more satisfied, something, feeling. So the ?ma tsin pai nam pa chen that’s the opposite of that, suffering feeling. Then, neither of that, then indifferent feeling, feeling is neither of that experience, indifferent feeling.

So happy feeling, suffering feeling is merely imputed, merely imputed on that mind, mental factor which has that characteristic, kind of more satisfied or something. The other one is, I’m not sure that, trying to guess, my own guess, the other one is opposite, so but you have to analyze the exact meaning of this, ?tsin pa. So, however, on that mental factor then, happy feeling, unhappy feeling is, so, merely imputed, merely imputed because this exists, that mental factor which is in that nature exists.

So here now you can see, happy feeling, suffering feeling, is also merely imputed, it exists in mere name, merely imputed by mind. So even the other one, the base, is also same, mere imputation by the mind, so, merely imputed by mind, so it doesn’t, merely imputed by the mind, it has no existence, it has no existence from its own side, it has no existence at all from its own side, totally empty.

Then, so, you have to know the very final, ?as it goes the final thing, how to look at it empty, otherwise all this is empty, you go down, down, down, and then, when you come ?all the way down, then, truly existent. Then, if that is truly existent, everything will become truly existent. So it’s very important when it comes to very subtle one, more subtle, then how to meditate that empty, how to see that empty.

So then the compounding aggregates, so there’s the fifty-one mental factors, so you take it out the feeling and cognition, cognition is that, the mental factor which, this and this and that, or, you see the design of this, this phenomenon, certain shape like that, this, then, of course all the flowers are not the same, they are different, so this particular design like that. Anyway, so then, by seeing this first, by seeing this. So like this, I think, this is also very important, anyway, since I’m talking here, so I just mention here, this is another one, very important, you must get in mind, very important meditation on emptiness, this point is very, very important, so then you get, then this way you get idea of base and label, how they are, how they exist, especially at the moment when we see a flower, according to how it appears, kind of like, when it is explained in details, then, on the base, then there’s a flower, a real flower appearing from there, on the base, there’s a real flower appearing from there, then you believe that is true, which is not there. So, this analysis is very important, another meditation on emptiness, helps to differentiate the base and the label, label, flower, and the base of the flower, label the flower and the base to be labeled flower, those two, because according to the appearance, I don’t know, whether you can say, it’s one, the base and the label, one, or, not that, I mean, perhaps you can say looks like that, base and label just one, but however, His Holiness Ling Rinpoche used to explain many years ago in Drepung Monastery when Rinpoche gave commentary on the Seven-Point Thought Transformation, there are many different texts Seven-Point Thought Transformation, there are many different texts. There’s one, I think this maybe quite commonly taught in the Lama Tsongkhapa tradition, don’t remember the name, that’s very commonly taught. But of course there’s Seven-Point Thought Transformation by Kadampa Geshe Chekawa, written by other lamas, so, which presents the emptiness first, but this one is according to lam-rim, present, so it comes later.

So, so Rinpoche explained that the meaning, definition of the object to be refuted, in Tibetan called gak cha, object to be refuted, the hallucination, so whether this is the false I or the false flower, whatever it is, so, at the moment I’m talking the flower, so, His Holiness Ling Rinpoche used to explain the, in your view, undifferentiable, the label, flower, and the base, undifferentiable, so that one is the gak cha. You can’t differentiate, undifferentiable, didn’t say one, but I think it’s almost like saying one, I think, undifferentiable, so I think Rinpoche related to the table or something like that, so must have introduced I, I guess.

So, undifferentiable, so when you look at the flower, the, when you look at here, flower, so, anyway, whatever flower you see, not only the flower in front of me, so anyway, so, how you see the flower, how did the flower appear to you, how you see the flower, so, according to Rinpoche undifferentiable the flower, the label, flower, and the base of the flower, undifferentiable, so I think it means, one, that it become that. Even though Rinpoche didn’t say one, but I think it’s…..

So, that is false, that’s the gak cha, object to be refuted, and that’s what we have to realize empty, total non-existent, empty, have to realize, total nonexistent, empty, that one, that part. [pause]

So, as Rinpoche explained, whichever, whatever we’re, we look at the light, the base, the label light and the base undifferentiable, everything is like that, so wherever you look at, everything, you don’t see the difference between them, undifferentiable, so everything.

So it’s easier to understand with the I and the aggregates, the hallucination, easy to understand. [pause] Easier to recognize the false, the object to be refuted, the I that which is the object to be refuted, the false I. So, that, because of that reason also then, easy, you don’t, you cannot realize the aggregates are empty before realizing the I is empty. First you realize the I is empty, then after that you can realize the aggregates are empty. So it can help to lead to that.

So, anyway, so now like this, that, so what I was going to mention this, just one technique. It’s a very important technique, so that it helps to, it helps to differentiate the label and the base, and that’s very, very important, extremely important, because that helps to recognize object to be refuted, then by recognizing that, then it’s just a minute to realizing emptiness, so like that, emptiness of that object, if it’s a flower, like that.

So, anyway, so, without seeing, after you entered in the room here, without seeing this base, this, this base that is shaped like this, colors, okay, so, without seeing this, you have no reason at all to label, your mind to label, flower. There’s no, you have no, there’s no reason at all for the mind to make up the label, flower, to choose this label, flower, you have no, there’s no reason at all, okay. So should get that idea, so first that make clear.

So, now, when the, so here I’m talking, when does the flower come into existence, okay? So without seeing this base, your mind, after you enter in the room, there’s no reason for the mind to make up, to choose the particular label, flower, okay. So, after, first the mind sees this figure, design like this, color, then, after seeing this particular phenomena, which has character like this, nature like this, then, only then, only then your mind, next second, your mind makes up the label, choose this particular label, flower, choose this particular label. There’s so many labels, then you choose this particular label, flower.

So, now, in regards, so this, so here, what comes in existence first, the base or the flower, label, flower, so you see, here, flower, by seeing the base first, that particular base, which causes your mind to choose this particular label, flower, okay. So, therefore, the label, flower, comes next, okay, comes into existence next. So therefore, you see the base first, and then next second you see the flower, that’s how you see.

So, why? Why, because, to be able to see a flower, you have to label first. You yourself to be able to see a flower, first, to be able to see that this is a flower, the flower has to appear to you first. In order that the flower to be able to appear to you, this is a flower, you have to label this flower, you have to label, so it comes like that.

So, here, now it’s clear, you see the base first, you see the base first, , which causes your mind to choose this label, flower. There are, I mean, numberless labels but to choose particular this, flower, okay. So therefore, that’s clear. First you see base, then you see flower, okay?

So that means, now, you don’t see together the base and the flower together, you don’t see, that doesn’t happen, that is not, that is impossible, impossible. You may think like that, intellectually, you may think like that, but it’s not in reality, together, no, no way. But if it’s together, then if it’s together, you are seeing together the base and flower, then what causes, after you enter into this room, what causes your mind to choose the flower, I have seen a flower, there’s a flower there. What causes the mind to choose that particular label, flower? The mind, the senses have to see something, have to see a particular phenomena, a particular phenomena you have to see first, then the label comes.

So, same, for example, like your mother or father or brother or sister, so, with people, so, when they come with people, so, so how you see, how you see your brother, sister, your father, mother, so, do you see their aggregates, do you see that person, your father, mother first before you see the aggregates, or do you see them together? You see your father, mother at the same time as seeing the aggregates, or you see your father, mother later, after seeing the aggregates?

So this is the analysis. So, of course, there’s no way to label, this is my mom, this is my mother, no way before seeing the aggregates. However, because the, to label that, you haven’t got a reason because you haven’t seen that particular body, which has that particular aggregates, so, that particular form, you didn’t see, , short nose or long nose, fat, so whatever it is, all that, anyway. I’m just joking, anyway.

So particular form you have to see first, and then, who gave birth to you, ____ ______, all that, so anyway, then your mind got a reason to label, to choose the label, ‘father’ or ‘mother’ or whatever, ‘brother,’ ‘sister,’ whatever it sees, after seeing that particular, so who gave birth, or born from the same parents, or, the brother, sister, whatever, okay. So the label comes next, you see the aggregates, and then you see the person; you see the aggregates first, then you see the person, you see the aggregates, then you see your father, you see your mother, like that. So, you don’t see together. So the idea is here, you don’t see together. The minute, as soon as you see aggregates, [snaps fingers] then the same, exact same time, not possible, no way because, because mind hasn’t got any, hasn’t seen the aggregates, that particular aggregates, so therefore, mind wouldn’t label this is father, mother, like that. So together you don’t see at all, impossible. So only you see after seeing the aggregates, that particular, then you see the father, mother, or you see the person, like that.

Same, here, you see this particular base first, then the mind chooses particular label: flower, okay, then you see the flower, after your mind imputed, then flower appeared back to you, then you see flower. So, therefore, now, it shows different, the base and the flower, different. They don’t exist separately, but they exist differently. So it helps for that. [pause]

And then, so you see here, what you see first, after you enter in the room, the first minute, what you see, what you see is base, you don’t call ‘table,’ this one, you don’t call this one, ‘table,’ or whatever it is , you don’t call ‘table,’ you don’t call ‘car,’ or ‘T.V.’ So, by seeing this, you don’t call ‘flower,’ [Rinpoche taps table], you don’t call flower. So, by seeing, so, by seeing whatever, so, by seeing this, you don’t call flower, okay. So, you have to see something, particular base, phenomena, first, then that causes your mind to choose the label, flower. So what you see first, so it’s very clear, what you see first is not the flower, it’s not the label, flower, it’s the base you are seeing. So the base you are seeing, okay.

So, therefore, so two different phenomena, but you see, two different phenomena, for us until we achieve enlightenment, until we removed, totally ceased the subtle negative imprint left by the concept of true existence in the past, which projects the mental fabrication or the, the true existence, truly existent appearance, or true existence, okay. So this projects true existence, okay, true existence, truly existent appearance. So, when that negative imprint, subtle negative imprint is removed, which does that mental fabrication, okay, when it’s removed, then we are an enlightened being.

So until we remove that, we don’t, whatever appears to us, it’s a hallucination. So, bodhicitta, compassion, loving kindness, those thoughts, things appear truly existent, they don’t apprehend, like ignorance, like, the here, so because we have this negative imprint, left by past ignorance, so, which, after our mind, by seeing the base, after our mind merely imputed, flower, the next second, first seeing the base, the, next second, mind merely imputed, flower, then, next second, right on top of that, the negative imprint projected, this, true existence, okay? So made the flower real to you, but it’s a hallucination, but it’s total hallucination, made real, a real flower, in the sense existing from its own side, it has existence from its own side, which is fabricated or which is projected by your negative imprint left by past ignorance, okay.

So, this is what we see. The way we see flower is that, we’re not seeing the flower according to the reality; we don’t see the flower, separate base and the label, flower, separate, differently, we don’t see that. We don’t see that. So, as His Holiness Ling Rinpoche, undifferentiable, ?from the base, not merely labeled by mind.

So, total hallucination, completely total hallucination, how we see flower, flower from its own side. You don’t see ‘flower’ from your mind, you don’t see flower from your mind, from the side of your mind, it exists from the side of your mind, merely imputed, not only imputed but merely imputed, but so subtle, but you don’t see that. So you see flower only existing from its own side, nothing to do with your mind, that’s going, that is going back, very gross, very gross hallucination. So anyway, so this is a hallucination, this is the object to be refuted, the flowers, ?anyway.

Now, similar, I want to tell this one, then, that’s it. This part of the subject ?of ?mind, this is. So, I want to tell that, so when we are driving a car in the road, so you see, green flower, sorry, green flower, green light, red light, orange light. So anyway, so again, here, you listen here. So, we think, the very first thing we see red light, red light, we think, very first, beginning thing we see green light, but that’s totally wrong, that’s totally wrong, total hallucination, totally wrong.

So you remember that I already talked related with the flower, so, how, how, now listen here, how your mind can label red, without seeing something, without seeing one color at the beginning, how are you going to label, green? You have to see one particular color, before your mind choose among the many labels, green, before you choose that, you have to see a color first. Maybe that’s ?not convincing. But you have to see a particular base, a particular base first, before you label, green, red, you have to see one particular base that can receive the label, so it means it is not that label. You have to understand. What you see first is not the label, red or green, it’s not the label, you’re not seeing the label first.

It’s the same, if you’re seeing, anyway, the same, if you’re seeing, if that’s the label that you are seeing first, then, because that is imputed by your mind, but in order to impute that, there’s a reason for that, so what is the reason? There’s no reason, you haven’t got any reason why to call, green, you haven’t got any reason to call it green, we haven’t got any reason to call it red, then this mistake rises.

So then if you can call any color, you can call it anything, still because, usually ?this harm. So, therefore, now, red, I should stop. So, I mean that time, you already labeled, red, you already labeled your mind, red, so the, no, sorry, that time, not just labeled, red, I mean, that time, you see red, okay, you see red, okay, you see red. So, that means seeing red, seeing red depends on appearing red. Seeing red depends on preliminary, appearing red, okay. In order to appear red to you, you have to label, red. In order to label, red, you have to see something, you have to see that particular phenomena which can receive the label, red.

So, that is a very important meditation. So here, normally we think, oh, you see first red, so without seeing the base, you see the red. Without seeing the base first, then you’re seeing red, totally wrong, it’s a hallucination, total hallucination.

So, that shows, what you see first, to ?telling the car to stop or go, what you’re seeing first is not red, it’s not green, that is the base, that is the base to be labeled red or green. So, you understand? By seeing that first, like as I told you flower, as I ?explained before, told you person and aggregates, if you have to see the aggregates first, what, all the design or, the aggregates, or the father or mother, brother, sister, whatever, friend, their certain aggregates, so if you see that first, whatever, nose, ear, whatever, hairs, back or front, whatever, so, anyway, I’m joking that, see first, then the mind labels, This is my brother or this is my sister or this is, that gives clear, that gives easy to understand.

So now light, now you’re driving a car, so that’s more difficult, but it’s the same, logically it’s the same. So, therefore, what you see first is not green, it’s not blue, so you think this is first you see that, totally wrong. So that’s not, so means that is not green, that is not red. So, by seeing that, that particular design, design or the color there, then, seeing that, then your mind labeled red, blue, green, red, so now, to stop, it means, now green means to go. Do you understand?

So, here, now here, this is a very important meditation. So, hallucination, that we have is, from beginning, either you accept labeled but then maybe you see, together with the base, however, the, anyway, so, our belief is that, I mean, our belief is that, you see red and green from its own side, no question of merely imputed by your mind. You see red light, green light from its own side, a real red light, a real green light from its own side.

So, like that, that’s when you drive a car, unless, I mean, buddha, who has no negative imprint project everything truly existent, doesn’t have that, then can see merely imputed light, can see, appear merely imputed light, so like that, green, red, whatever.

So, us sentient beings, except when we are in equipoise meditation, when we achieve arya, when we achieve the exalted path, having wisdom directly perceiving emptiness, when we’re in equipoise meditation then at that time we don’t have that hallucination. Otherwise, until you achieve enlightenment, until you remove the subtle negative imprint, you have all this hallucinations. As I mentioned before, even the bodhicitta has hallucination, even the compassion has hallucination, even the loving kindness, all other realizations have hallucination, except the wisdom directly perceiving emptiness, that which is in equipoise meditation, that doesn’t have hallucination. So, that, a sentient being’s minds is hallucination, hallucinated mind, except the wisdom directly perceiving emptiness in equipoise meditation.

So, it’s clear, one thing to think with the life, you see, of course you see green light, red light, but then to be able to see first, before that, it has appeared to you. In order to appear to you, the light, it depends on preliminary your mind labeling green or red. Then, now, to be able to label, green or red, then you have to see something first, particular base.

So, what causes you to label green, label, oh, that is the base, okay, that’s not green, that’s not red, so that comes after. But it appears to us, how it appears is, red from its own side, green from its own side. I mean, how it appears, nothing, never came from your mind, nothing to do with your mind, it truly, very gross one is truly exist from its own side, I mean what I mentioned yesterday or today, I mean, today or yesterday, I went over the different levels of hallucination, according to the different schools, so, the very gross one, the extremely gross one, that appearing permanent, that green and red light, you don’t see impermanent nature, even it appears as permanent, yeah, so appearing permanent, so that existing alone and existing with its own freedom, so, that’s the extremely gross, the hallucination we have, we see the life. But appearing not labeled by mind, that’s extremely subtle, subtle hallucination, object to be refuted, then when you realize that one is empty, then that’s the Prasangika School view of emptiness, the unmistaken right view. Otherwise, all others, that’s not really emptiness, not shunyata, okay.

So it’s very interesting, this, the person, the aggregates and the person, and the, seeing the aggregates, then you see, then you see your mum, your father, it’s easy to understand, but the light, when you see green, red light , that’s not, that’s more difficult. You think, you strongly think red, green light from its own side, like, you see that one first, you don’t see, there’s no question of base, so there’s a lot of hallucination there, a lot of mental fabrication, a lot of mental fabrication there.

So, so that is another meditation, another good meditation, gak cha, object to be refuted, in the road seeing lights, the road, how we see the light, how it appears and how we believe, so that’s a very great, another good example, good example of the hallucination or the object to be refuted.

So same here, this white light. Same. So this white light here is very bright, so you see the light from your mind or you see the light from its own side, so that’s a very good example, very good example of gak cha, object to be refuted, false view, false light.

So this is much more, the other part is much easier, but then here now, it’s the same, it’s exactly the same but, so more difficult to differentiate the base and the label light. So those are very good examples of object, gak cha, object to be refuted, what is false, to ?do, so when you realize that is totally nonexistent, then you’re seeing emptiness, of the light, okay?

I tell you one thing, a child who is not educated this is green light, this red light, okay. Now, this will help with that. So child sees, the child can see the lights, anyway, child looking up. So if you ask child to look up, but the child hasn’t got the education, the names, doesn’t matter whichever language, English or Russian or Japanese or Chinese, whatever, or Mexican. ] So, anyway, so, now here, now you concentrate here, the child sees the, that phenomena, okay, but doesn’t see, because haven’t educated the name for that, so child doesn’t have, child doesn’t see it’s a green light, child does not see that this is a red light, and because child doesn’t have the appearance that this is a red light or green light, why, because child hasn’t labeled yet, this is green light, red light, because why child hasn’t educated yet the name for that, okay, so this, okay. So the child’s side doesn’t see that this is green light, or that this is red light, so it doesn’t see, because it doesn’t have the appearance that this is a green light or a red light and because mind hasn’t labeled yet, this is green, red light, okay. Because why, because haven’t taught yet.

So it’s like, a child, Oh this is Medicine Buddha, I mean people who haven’t got that idea, education, that is Medicine Buddha. So, you see the figure there, even Buddha, just say so same, you see the figure, so, but the person doesn’t see it is Buddha, painting of Buddha, doesn’t see because doesn’t have that appearance as it is Buddha or, because that person hasn’t labeled yet, this is Medicine Buddha or this Buddha, hasn’t labeled yet, why, because that person hasn’t got the education or that person was not taught yet, that’s a painting of Buddha. So will just see a figure of a person, something like that. Then, after somebody tells, oh this is painting of a Buddha, then the other person, oh, this is a painting of Buddha, then he or she herself label, this is a painting of a Buddha, label, her- or himself label, then right after the label then there’s appearance, this is Buddha, appearance, then after the appearance see that this is Buddha, the painting of Buddha, Medicine Buddha.

So now you understand, now you got clear. So before that person is educated, this is a painting of Buddha, or Medicine Buddha, so what the person is seeing is the base. So now, same thing, the child, green light, red light, the child, before the child is taught the name for this, the child sees that material, that color, sees, but doesn’t see it’s a red light or green light, doesn’t see and doesn’t appear, okay, because the child’s mind hasn’t labeled green or red. So, child sees that, that light, child sees, not, until you teach child this is green, red light, child never sees light. So, child sees, that phenomenon child sees, so like that.

So even light is the name, so it’s same. See that phenomena, child sees that phenomena, see, then child, when a child is educated a name, this is light, then what light, same.

So, therefore, what child sees first is the base, when a child is given, educated in name, the name, then child believes that, gave, the child make up that same label, then appears and sees red, green, only comes afterwards. So this one gives you a better idea of the word, base, base child sees before child is educated the green, red light. So, we think green, red light from there, that’s a total hallucination. So the idea of that painting gives the idea of child, then gives you a better idea, base, and the label, the light, so like that.

So the, so, I’m not going to keep a long time. So, what’s the time now? [Student: It’s 11 o’clock.] Oh, I see, okay. I was shocked.

Anyway, so it’s very useful, more examples, then you see the hallucination, how unbelievable hallucination that we have.

Then, maybe I stop here and then the, I started this subject basically, the, how phenomena come from the mind, one is, what we see now is, the phenomena, how you see is creation of your present mind. The other one is long-term, other one is how the phenomena came from the mind, it’s something from the past, long time. So, by understanding this, so I’m not going to continue, by understanding this, then you know that it’s up to your mind, depending what you label, then it appears to you, then it affects to you. If you put a negative label, it appears negative then appears negative, you see negative, then it affects to you, it makes you sad, it makes you angry, it makes you sad, unhappy. So the other one is, your mind put a positive label, then it appears positive then you see positive, then it makes you happy.

So you see, here, now in daily life, in our daily life, I didn’t give much example but I think, so, just, one or two examples, however, then now you see, in the daily life, what makes you unhappy is by your mind, what makes you happy is by your mind, by your concept, so totally dependent to your mind.

So, but we all the time we, always we think, purely from its own side, from the person or from non-living phenomena, or whatever, purely from that. That’s total hallucination, it has no base.

So, so then, now, because you know it has to do with your mind, so now it gives incredible freedom to you, because you can change, you can change, you can think different, you can change, put a different label, positive label. Any problem, by thinking of their benefits, by thinking of their benefits that you receive, then you can put a positive label, good. So whatever problem, whatever problem has its benefits, that you get, advantage, benefits, so thinking of that, then you see them, that’s how the problem able to transform into happiness.

So then, this way you don’t engage in negative karma, you don’t harm other people, you don’t harm other sentient beings, you don’t harm to yourself, you don’t harm other sentient beings, so that, you are saved by, you become the protector, protecting yourself from those heavy negative karmas, makes sick or unhappy or the, drive you crazy this life, and then, also, rebirth in the unbelievable suffering in the lower realms. And then even you are born a human being, so many problems you experience, so it doesn’t happen those things.

So then you cause, with a positive mind, then you cause yourself happiness, you cause others happiness with that. So that’s a very fundamental practice, what’s called thought transformation, lo-jong or the, so, we experience problems because past karma, because we created the cause of those, negative karma, we created the cause, so we experience those various difficulties. So, then, but then, so, it’s up to your mind, even though it’s the result of past negative karma, but whether that is pleasure or suffering to you now it depends on how your present mind looks at it, interprets that, so whether you look at it positive or you look at it negative. By looking at it positive, then all your problems, you are able to use in the path to enlightenment, you are able to use as a path to enlightenment, not only liberation, yourself to achieve enlightenment. That means, you’re able to use your problems to cause happiness to numberless sentient beings, liberate them from suffering and causes, and bring them to enlightenment. You are able to use these problems in the means to cause happiness to all sentient beings. So, you transform into happiness the problem. So thinking of the benefits what you get, so that’s, so that is very special, that is a very special capacity of when we practice Dharma, Dharma practitioners, special capacity, to transform the sufferings into happiness.

So, for example, Geshe Lama Konchog, anyway, what I was telling last night was, actually he means, he was telling me, so unimportant, we just pass, “I have completed these two practices of Vajrayogini and Guru Puja,” so sort of, just passing, just, what do you call this, casually passing, just, nothing very important thing, so actually, he completed the path to enlightenment, he’s a great yogi, completed the path.

So, in the relics, there’s five different color relics in Geshe Lama Konchog’s, five different colored relics came. So, what happened was, there was the head lama of Nyingma, Penor Rinpoche, who lives in South India, so he was teaching, giving teaching in the Kagyu monastery, very close to the stupa, Baudha Stupa, when the relic, when Geshe Lama Konchog passed away up there at Kopan, Kopan Monastery, then when they offered fire, unbelievable relics coming, amazing. I think he, I don’t know, he may have that motivation to help Maitreya Project through the relics, possible that he made that intention, why so unbelievable relics. His hair is all white hair, didn’t have black hair, but after all the fire, there was also black hair, so that’s unimaginable. Some were pearls, relics, so five colored

I think probably arm to go to bed, arm to go to bed. What? Burn out? [Student: I can smell it.] [Further discussion among students.]

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