Kopan Course No. 28 (1995): Audio and Transcripts

By Kyabje Lama Zopa Rinpoche
Kathmandu, Nepal 1995 (Archive #1019)

These teachings were given by Lama Thubten Zopa Rinpoche at the Twenty-Eighth Kopan Meditation Course in November 1995. Included are oral transmissions of the Heart Sutra, the Thirty-five Buddhas Confession Prayer, and Pabongka Rinpoche's Heart-Spoon.

Download or listen online to the audio recordings of Lectures 1-3 and 6-9, and read along with the transcript. You may also download the entire transcript in a pdf file.

Lecture Two: The Tantric Path

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Visualize all the kind mother sentient beings: human beings, suras, asuras and each hell being, hungry ghost and animal being. From Chenrezig, the compassionate Buddha's heart, the thousand-arm Compassion Buddha who is seated on the crown, nectar flows down to purify and liberate them from all the sufferings and causes of suffering. The sentient beings who are the source of all one’s own past, present and future happiness including enlightenment, including one's own enlightenment, from whom one receives all the happiness, all the goodness, all the perfections. Who are so kind and so precious in one's life.

While we are reflecting how they are suffering, we recite mantra, purifying like this.

(Rinpoche recites OM MANI PADME HUM mantra for several minutes)

Oneself and all the kind mother sentient beings were purified and the crown Chenrezig, the Compassion Buddha absorbs to them. And they all become enlightened. Or, if it is transformed from one's own heart, oneself being Chenrezig, then they can absorb back into one's own heart, after having purified the sentient beings and led them into the Compassion Buddha's full enlightenment.

(Dedication prayer)

First, I thought to continue yesterday's introduction, briefly, so that you have a little idea of the advantage of practicing tantra. By taking the great initiation, by practicing tantra, what great benefit you get from that. What is the special thing about it?

As Lama Tsongkhapa mentioned in the teachings, “In order to go to enlightenment, here is the profound vajrayana, vajra vehicle, paramitayana, there are two types. The secret mantra is exceeding…” exceeding? Anyway, much (Rinpoche laughs) much more special, transcendent, “…transcendent. It is known like the sun and the moon that this is very special or transcendent. It is known like sun and moon.

“Without practicing the secret mantra, Vajrayana, only practicing the Mahayana paramitayana, only practicing the side of the sutra, one has to accumulate merit for three countless great eons in order to achieve full enlightenment.”

There are five paths to achieving enlightenment: path of merit, path of conjunction, the right-seeing path, the Mahayana path of merit, path of conjunction, right-seeing path, path of meditation, and no-more-learning. From the Mahayana path of merit to the third, the right-seeing path, is the first countless great eon. It's counted as the first eon. Then the ten bhumis start from the Mahayana right-seeing path. From there up to the eighth bhumi is the second countless great eon. Then from there until one achieves enlightenment, the ----- bhumi, is the third countless eon. So it takes much longer to achieve full enlightenment.

There are four classes of vajrayana or Mahayana secret mantra, the vajrayana or secret mantra: kriya tantra, charya tantra, anuttarayoga tantra, maha-anuttarayoga tantra.

Kriya tantra emphasis is mainly outer yoga. Charya tantra is both inner and outer. Then anuttarayoga tantra is mainly inner and the emphasis of maha-anuttarayoga tantra is only the inner yoga.

Even by practicing the lower tantra, such as kriya tantra, one can achieve enlightenment without need to accumulate merit for three countless great eons. One can achieve full enlightenment within one life. One can achieve full enlightenment even by practicing lower tantra, such as kriya tantra, within one life. This opportunity is there in even the lower tantra.

Now in the case of the Mahayana secret mantra highest tantra, maha-anuttarayoga tantra, that has the greatest skill, that offers the most skilful means to achieve full enlightenment most quickly, in a brief lifetime of degenerated time, not only within one life but in a brief lifetime of degenerated time.

To clarify this, in the lower tantra, by achieving immortality, by prolonging the life such as a thousand years, still one achieves enlightenment, by making the life longer. By prolonging the life one achieves enlightenment, still achieving the enlightenment in one life. In the maha-anuttarayoga tantra one can achieve enlightenment without need to prolong the life or achieve the realization of the undying life, without need to do that.

Life in the degenerated time is very short, one hundred or even shorter, so a brief lifetime of degenerated time is much shorter. However, within some number of years one is able to achieve full enlightenment, as the highest tantra offers the most skilful or the quickest means to achieve full enlightenment.

For example, when one travels one can go by car, one can go by bicycle (Rinpoche laughs), one can go on the cycles (Rinpoche laughs), one can go by car (Rinpoche laughs) or the quickest one is by airplane. Maybe the quickest one is by gliding, maybe by gliding, gliding by tying the hands with their wings, (laughter), (Rinpoche laughs), I'm joking. (Rinpoche laughs) (laughter) Maybe the quickest way to free from the human problems—I'm joking. (laughter)

This is the essence. Now the very basic skilful means of the Mahayana secret mantra, or the vajrayana… it is called the result yana, the vehicle of the result. Why is this called vehicle? Why is it called the vehicle of the result? From this explanation one can get some idea.

The basic reason the tantra path becomes a quick path to achieve enlightenment is that there is an opportunity on the path to meditate on that which is similar to the four complete pure results that one will achieve in the future when one becomes enlightened.

From the four completely pure results, the first one is the completely pure body, the holy body. When one becomes enlightened, when one becomes Chenrezig, the Buddha of compassion, that time one has the vajra holy body, the completely pure vajra holy body. Not only it does it not have suffering, the aggregates are completely pure, uncontaminated by even the subtle imprint left by the disturbing thought, the simultaneously-born concept of inherent existence.


The completely pure holy body, which covers all existence, has infinite qualities that don’t fit to our present, very primitive mind, very obscured mind. To our ordinary mind that doesn't fit, it cannot comprehend all the qualities of even just the Buddha's holy body. The completely pure holy body pervades, covers all existence and whenever sentient beings’ karma ripens, without delaying even a second, immediately it takes form right there and guides the sentient being without any effort.

In everyday life, one stops the impure appearance and concept and one practices by transforming into pure appearance and pure thought, visualizing oneself into a deity, visualizing one's own body into the deity's body, stopping the ordinary appearance and concept of one's own ordinary body and transforming it into the pure appearance, the holy body of the Buddha, the holy body of the deity.

Each time, one does this practice by purifying the ordinary I, ordinary aggregates into emptiness and then generating into the deity. So like this, practicing the pure appearance of one’s own body as the deity's holy body. For example, the deity Compassion Buddha's holy body, which one is going to achieve in the future, one visualizes now in daily life by holding divine pride, generating faith that this is the result time Compassion Buddha's body; practicing pure appearance, the result time holy body of the Buddha.

This meditation becomes incredible skilful means, or very powerful purification, purifying so much negative karma and accumulating so much merit. This is because this special meditation technique is especially done not just by visualizing the result time deity's holy body, but the way of visualizing the holy body is with method and wisdom. The way the meditation is done is by perfecting your one thought into method and wisdom, inseparable method with wisdom. That's how the visualization of the holy body of the deity is done—visualizing in pure appearance the deity's holy body, Buddha's holy body, but the way it is meditated or visualized is with inseparable method and wisdom. So, it becomes like a very sophisticated machine with very high technology that can do things very fast, like some modern developed machines, which can go much faster than machines made some number of years ago. It is such an incredible technique because the way the holy body is visualized is by one mind perfected in method and wisdom, practicing together, method and wisdom, it is done that way. So it becomes very special. Little more details may come later, not at this point.

This becomes unbelievable purification, purifying the obscurations then accumulating inconceivable merit. This meditation itself becomes path to quickly achieve the result time completely pure holy body of the deity, which can guide perfectly, without mistakes, the sentient beings, who have different levels of mind.

The second one is the completely pure place, holy place, the completely pure place, the celestial mansion mandala, which is the pure appearance of the deity's wisdom. For example, Chenrezig compassion Buddha’s mandala, which is a completely pure, holy place and which one will achieve when one becomes enlightened.

So, in our everyday life, we stop the ordinary appearance and concept of the place, that this place is ordinary, stop that and train the mind in pure appearances, looking at the place as a pure, holy place, the mandala of the deity.

It is said in the tantra teachings that each time we visualize a mandala it purifies ten million eons of negative karma. Each time one visualizes the mandala of the deity, when one does the meditation of the mandala of the deity, it has incredible power to purify the mental continuum, so much obscuration, ten millions of eons of negative karma. And by that also one accumulates extensive merit. This is the reason how practicing secret mantra, vajrayana mantra makes to achieve full enlightenment quicker, even just from this, even by meditating on the mandala. Even a few seconds meditating on the mandala becomes unbelievable powerful purification. So it becomes quick path to achieve enlightenment.

So everyday, in our everyday life practicing this pure appearance, visualizing the result time completely pure place of the deity, itself becomes the path to achieve the result time completely pure place, the mandala.

The third thing is the enjoyment in our daily life. We stop the impure, ordinary appearance or concept of enjoyments as ordinary. Each time we stop that and visualize the result time, completely pure enjoyment, it accumulates inconceivable merits and becomes again great purification. So again that makes to quickly achieve enlightenment. So this meditation, itself, becomes path to achieve the result time, completely pure enjoyment of the deity, what one is going to experience when one becomes enlightened, when one becomes the deity. By visualizing in our daily life, as it is happening, visualizing that way, that itself becomes path to achieve it, the result time completely pure enjoyment of the deity.

Then there is the result time completely pure holy action of the deity, such as emitting beams from the holy body, from the pores of the deity. Even each second liberates numberless sentient beings from the sufferings and leads them into temporary and ultimate happiness; even each beam that emits from the deity's holy body. So this result time completely pure action, working for sentient beings, benefiting sentient beings, such as like this we visualize in our daily life.

For example, in the sadhanas, each time we do sadhana, in the sadhana there are many points where one visualizes being a syllable, the syllable of the deity, then you send beams purifying the sentient beings, purifying the sentient beings. And one makes offering to the deities, buddhas and bodhisattvas, then sending beams, purifying the sentient beings, leading them into enlightenment; or visualizing beams emitting from the deity's holy body, by visualizing oneself as the deity, the Buddha, purifying sentient beings and leading them into enlightenment. So there are many meditation practices like this in the sadhanas.

Here, you are meditating the result time completely pure holy actions, what is going to happen when you become enlightened you visualize now in the daily life.

Each time one does this special, particular way of visualizing, purifying sentient beings by visualizing oneself as a deity and sending beams, it accumulates much more merit than in the sutra by doing the tong-len practice, taking other sentient beings' sufferings and giving one's own happiness and merit toward others. Of course one accumulates infinite merit each time one takes other sentient beings' suffering, other sentient beings' sufferings within one's own heart and when one dedicates one's own merits and happiness toward all sentient beings, each time one accumulates infinite merit. But it is said, in tantra, when one does this visualization, by visualizing oneself as deity, sending beams purifying sentient beings, one accumulates more merit than in the paramitayana path, such as doing tong-len, the taking and giving practice. So this meditation itself becomes path to achieve the result time completely pure holy action of the deity.

So all these four things, these four types of meditation, visualizing the four completely pure results, now, it becomes very incredible, skilful meditation technique, path to quickly achieve these four completely pure results of the deity, to quickly achieve full enlightenment. So, each time when we do sadhana, meditation of the deity, sadhana, this is the basic meditation, what is involved, this is the basic meditation. This is the foundation that is there, foundation of the Vajrayana path.

Therefore, each time one does the sadhana of the deity, if one is able to recognize and understand the benefits, how it works, what benefit you get from each of those meditations, unbelievable purification is done when one does meditation of the sadhana of each of the deities' practice, the path. In other words, each time makes much closer to enlightenment, makes incredible preparation in the mind. Makes the mind prepared, leaves so much potential on this mental continuum to quickly achieve full enlightenment.

As it is mentioned in the dedication prayers, due to these merits may all the living beings complete accumulating the merit of wisdom and merit of method or fortune. And achieve the two kayas, Dharmakaya and Rupakaya, the completely pure holy mind and the complete pure holy body, which are the result of these two types of merit, the merit of wisdom and the merit of method. Dharmakaya is the completely pure holy mind, the result of completing the merit of wisdom, and Rupakaya is the completely pure holy body, the result of completing the merit of method.

How quickly one can achieve full enlightenment, the unification of this completely pure holy body and completely pure holy mind of the deity, of the Buddha, such as the Compassion Buddha, how quickly one can, how much time it takes depends on how much one is able to finish, how quickly, how much one is able accumulate the two types of merits. The answer to that question is there, how long it will take, or how quickly one can achieve full enlightenment. The answer is in our everyday life, how much we are able to finish the work of accumulating the two types of merit.

From this dedication one can understand that this—the secret mantra, Vajrayana four types of meditation, visualizing the result, the four completely purified results in the present time, meditating now—becomes incredibly skillful means to finish the work of accumulating merit, the extensive merit of wisdom and method. In each minute, each second to finish so much of the work of accumulating merit, the two types of merit. So, as I mentioned and gave some idea before, that's how the meditation, this path brings oneself to enlightenment quicker.

Why it is called the vajra yana, I will just mention roughly the meaning of Vajrayana. In tantra, whenever we practice pure appearance, as I mentioned before, our body as a pure deity's holy body, the place as mandala, enjoyments as pure enjoyment, actions as pure actions. The mind visualizing all these things, which practices all these pure appearances, should be done with one thought, by perfecting into method and wisdom, practicing together method and wisdom, by one thought practicing method and wisdom together. All these practices, when we do sadhana, from beginning to end the way to do it perfectly is with one mind perfecting in method and wisdom, doing all the meditations without separation of method and wisdom.

Therefore it is called vajra, which means inseparability of method and wisdom, indestructible. The diamond can destroy glass and so forth, can cut those other materials but other materials cannot destroy the diamond. It is like that example. The mind that is unified method and wisdom can destroy the root of samsara, the ignorance, and those disturbing thoughts. But they cannot destroy this vajra mind, the transcendental wisdom of non-dual bliss and voidness. They cannot destroy such as this mind.

When one visualizes the deity's holy body, like for example Chenrezig, with a thousand-arms or whatever aspect, one visualizes the holy body without separation of method and wisdom. This becomes preparation, during the generation stage, for example, in the highest tantra, during the generation stage when one visualizes the deity's holy body without separation of method and wisdom, one mind perfecting the method of wisdom, in that way doing the meditation on the deity's holy body. This becomes preparation for the completion stage, the Maha-anuttarayoga second stage, the completion stage. That which has the five stages: isolation of body, speech and mind; that which is clear light; then the illusory body; then unified illusory body and clear light; and then the unification of no-more-learning. During the generation stage, visualizing the deity's holy body, integrated method and wisdom, becomes great preparation to achieve the completion stage, the path of unification, unification of the wisdom, the clear light and method, the illusory body.

Not only that, during the generation stage, when one visualizes the deity’s holy body in one's own everyday life, visualizing the deity's holy body without separation of method and wisdom, continuously—continuously it becomes cause to achieve full enlightenment, or the unification of the completely pure holy body and holy mind of the deity, the unification of no more learning; the unification of no more learning, the completely pure holy body and holy mind of the deity.

Continuously in everyday life, while one visualizes a deity's holy body, perfecting with method and wisdom in one mind, continuously it becomes cause to achieve the unification of no more learning, the completely pure holy body and holy mind of the deity. It becomes an incredible technique, a very profound, secret, very profound meditation, path, to quickly achieve full enlightenment, because of the technique—as I mentioned before, like the very modern, the very sophisticated machine that can do things much faster…


… without taking much time, like in the Mahayana sutra, the paramita path, which takes such a long time as one has to accumulate merits for three countless great eons, taking much time to achieve enlightenment for sentient beings. Here one achieves enlightenment… in the lower tantra one can achieve enlightenment in one lifetime, then in the highest tantra one can achieve enlightenment in a brief lifetime of degenerated time.

Therefore the attitude to practice tantra has to be very strong compassion towards other sentient beings. The reason, the need to achieve enlightenment quickly is not for one's own happiness, it is purely that one can't stand, one can't bear it, one can't stand that other sentient beings are suffering in samsara. Such strong compassion that one can't stand, one cannot bear the numberless other kind mother sentient beings suffering in samsara. Then for that person, they need to practice tantra, for that solution.

This comes during preparation time but, however I mention here now.

There are twenty intermediate eons for the evolution, how long it takes the world to evolve, this one universe, the whole thing, including Mount Meru, including the lower realms and this one universe. How long it takes to evolve is twenty intermediate eons. Then how long it lasts is twenty intermediate eons. Then how long it takes to dissolve or to end, gradually, is again another twenty intermediate eons. Then how long this is space, where this universe becomes empty, is also mentioned as twenty intermediate eons. Then again, after that, again the universe starts to evolve, expand.

It is explained, according to Buddha, an omniscient one's explanation of the biological. The consciousness of human beings, the very original human beings on this earth, came from the form realm. Consciousness came from the form realm and then, due to past karma, the consciousness took over the light. Consciousness took over the light. The consciousness took over the fertilized egg in mother's womb, so they got this body. At that time, those original beings, their consciousness came from the deva form realms and they took place, their consciousness took over the light on this earth, so that is how they have this sort of body of light.

Then because the imprints left by the past karma on the mental continuum were not purified, then, as the imprints, the seeds of the delusions were there in the mental continuum, as conditions came together, attachment and lust, from that seed of attachment that was planted and left on the mental continuum by the past delusions, by the past karma—because the seed was there, by meeting the conditions, those outer conditions the sense objects, the attachment has risen.

We can use the same example in our everyday life. Because the seed of attachment is there, when you meet objects, if you don't apply the meditation, if you don't protect the mind by applying meditation of lam-rim then, when you meet the sense objects, sense objects that are beautiful, because we don't protect our mind by applying the meditation, there's no protection in one’s life or one’s mind, so therefore, seed of attachment left in the mind gives rise to the delusion attachment by meeting the object. This is how it happens, how it works it out, how it happens.

Similar to what happens in our daily life, the same thing happened with those original human beings. Then their minds became stronger in the delusions, stronger and stronger delusions, minds became more and more degenerated, less and less pure. Then also the body, even the light disappeared, the body became gross body by eating impure substances with attachment. The body became gross. Similarly, relating to us, depending on what food we eat, it affects our body, makes the body pure or makes the body impure, makes the body smell very bad or sweet. Then that time the sex organs happened due to past karma and to those conditions.

It is said in the teachings that those original human beings live an inconceivable, incredible length of time. Then, due to the degeneration of mind, the length of life becomes shorter, shorter and shorter. It goes down to ten then again, by accumulating merit, again the life becomes longer and longer and longer. It goes up to age 80,000, then again degenerates down, shorter and shorter till it goes down to ten. There's a curve that goes up to 80,000 then again degenerates down, shorter and shorter, so that's one curve. There are twenty curves like that. Each of them is called an intermediate eon.

The purpose of explaining this is to realize how the tantra teaching is so precious and so rare, to realize this. Buddha doesn't descend on this earth all the time. When the life increases, those are called the dark ages; in a dark eon, or dark age, there's no Buddha, there's no Dharma in the world, in the universe. Only when the life gets shorter and shorter, only during those times, only when it comes down, shorter and shorter, only during those times Buddha descends. Those are called the ages of light, the eon of light. The other one is the dark eon. Only when the life-span becomes shorter, from 80,000 then Buddha descends, only in those times. So now, even though there are 1000 Buddhas who descend in this universe, from these 1000, Guru Shakyamuni Buddha is the fourth one, the present founder of Buddhadharma. Guru Shakyamuni Buddha is the fourth one.

The previous three Buddhas didn't teach tantra, the quick path to enlightenment. They taught the lesser vehicle, had shown the lesser vehicle path and the paramitayana path but didn't teach the Mahayana tantra, the Vajrayana path, because sentient beings didn't have karma. It's not that the Buddhas didn't know tantra, that only Guru Shakyamuni Buddha knows tantra, all those other Buddhas didn’t know tantra, it’s not that. Those sentient beings didn't have any karma to receive and practice tantra. Therefore, they did not reveal tantra. So Guru Shakyamuni Buddha is the first one to reveal tantra in this universe, in our world, in this human continent.

It is said the seventh Buddha, who is the embodiment of Lama Tsongkhapa, called Gyalwa sengyi na.rol will reveal tantra. Then it is said the very last Buddha had made prayers in the past that he will teach the sentient beings in this universe whatever the other Buddhas have taught. So because of this promise it is assumed that this last Buddha may teach tantra. Otherwise, from 1000 Buddhas, the other Buddhas don't teach tantra because the sentient beings don't have karma to meet tantra teachings, the quick path of enlightenment.

It is said in the teachings in a section on generating happiness by having met tantra: “To meet tantra is much rarer than meeting Buddha. Seeing Buddha is much easier.”

From the thousand Buddhas, many Buddhas descend but it doesn't mean to say all those times sentient beings can meet tantra. So the opportunity to meet tantra is extremely rare. The definite one has ended in this time.

It is said also the holy bodies of all the buddhas, Vairocana; the holy speech of all the buddhas, Amitabha; the holy mind of all the buddhas, Akshobhya, and so forth, including the present Guru Shakyamuni Buddha, all achieved enlightenment by practicing tantra. Everyone achieved enlightenment by practicing tantra, even Guru Shakyamuni Buddha. By practicing tantra they achieved enlightenment and destroyed the host of the maras, which is explained in Guru Shakyamuni Buddha’s position, the aspect, which symbolizes Buddha having destroyed the four maras: mara of aggregates; mara of the lord of death; mara of the delusions; and mara of the devas’ son.

Mara of the devas’ son: due to our delusions, the root of samsara, ignorance, there are evildoers, devas, who harm, who disturb us sentient beings who are trying to be pure, who are trying to do good, trying to practice Dharma. Those evildoers, those devas harm by shooting the five arrows of delusions. In those who want to practice charity, they cause to rise miserliness, attachment and miserliness in the mind. That blocks them from accumulating merit, the cause of happiness, charity.

In those who want to live pure lives, who want to practice morality, to live in pure morality, these evil beings cause to desire and attachment to rise. When the person who is trying practice pure morality is doing some very important practice, these evil doers, these devas either interfere with the person to take vows, to practice morality, or after the person has taken ordination, whether lay vows or ordination of renunciation of the householder life. Then right after the vows are taken these evil beings cause to destroy, cause desire to rise in the person’s mind and destroy the person's pure morality. Even in dreams they try to harm, make the person impure.

This came about because I mentioned the four maras. I think it's very important to watch this, to be cautious. I think it is very important to be cautious of this, to know, to be aware that there is this thing, this one of the four maras. When you're trying to be pure, or trying to do something very important, something very beneficial for sentient beings, you are doing something very important, that has incredible great benefit. It's similar when Buddha, in the early morning, was achieving full enlightenment, the hundred million of these Maras were trying to attack, trying to harm Buddha because they didn't want to be defeated. They didn't want Buddha to conquer so they tried to harm Buddha. It is similar with you. I think it’s very important for the lay person who has taken vows and those who are living in the ordination of renunciation, to watch, to remember this, to be cautious of this, to remember.

That which we believe “this is me, this is what I want, this is me, this is what I want. This is my nature. This is me. This is what I want. What I want is this.” We may call it like this, but actually, these are delusions rising when one is trying to practice Dharma, or trying to be pure, doing something very important to achieve liberation or achieve enlightenment for sentient beings. These devas’ son, these evil beings can cause strong desire and so forth to rise. Then believing “this is me, this is what I want, this is my own feeling or my own characteristics or my own being.” Then it’s just a second, it doesn’t take much time to destroy the root, the source of liberation, the ordination or the precepts.

Buddha has completely ceased the four maras, gross and subtle. Then Buddha realized by achieving enlightenment if one turns Dharma, then sentient beings will follow, will practice. With this understanding, Buddha revealed Dharma. After turning Dharma then, since the sentient beings’ karma to see Buddha had finished, for that reason showed the most important teaching of the Buddha, which is impermanence and death.

What makes our mind, makes sentient beings’ mind… by reflecting on impermanence and death in our heart, only then we can cut down, only then we can cut off the opposite to Dharma, the evil thought of the eight worldly dharma, attachment clinging to these eight objects, clinging to this life. Only then one is able to cut off this. By remembering impermanence and death in our heart, only then we can to cut off the evil thought of the eight worldly dharma, which is the main obstacle to practice Dharma, which doesn't allow us to practice Dharma and which is the basis for all life’s confusions and problems. To reveal the most important teaching to us sentient beings, by thinking which, only then we can practice Dharma. We can practice pure Dharma. So, the second thing that Buddha did, in order to show the teaching of impermanence and death and how important it is to meditate on this, Buddha showed the aspect of passing away.

The essence is all the Buddhas became enlightened by practicing tantra.

Did I say prayers? Didn't? (laughter) (Rinpoche laughs) then after preparation…

Maybe I can do the oral transmission of this very effective advice or meditation given by the great enlightened being, Pabongka Rinpoche, who is the author of Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand. I have received the oral transmission of this from one of my gurus, Ribur Rinpoche, who is a very close disciple of Pabongka Dechen Nyingpo.

It might be useful seeing that this is translated into English. Especially when we have so many emotional problems, when our life is so suffocated with emotional problems that we put ourselves into the prison of confusion or suffering, and then there's danger to commit suicide.

There have been Dharma students who learned Tibetan language and were able to translate, who received many teachings. There was one student in Switzerland, who had been around, received teachings from many great teachers but never got to do retreat and didn't really get to practice much, but had been around for many years. Due to emotional problems, relationship problem, he hanged himself, even though he had heard teachings for many years. He ended up his life. So he missed out all those retreats that he planned, which he thought to do later, in the future.

There happened also one quite new student, I think, a monk who was quite new to Dharma. He shot himself.

There are many different types of depression. I think, depending on what type of depression, but one of the most powerful methods for depression is to think of death, that death can happen and the uncertainty of the time of death. Death can happen even today, even within this hour; to have strong meditation on that. That is another very powerful meditation that immediately cuts the depression. It is very good during those times.

The other thing is, of course, when there's depression to think of the numberless other sentient beings who have depression, and to think, “I have received, as I've been praying, I have received all sentient beings' suffering, particularly depression. I have received it within me and I am experiencing this depression on behalf of all other sentient beings.” The depression that you are experiencing, think this is not your depression but the depression of all sentient beings. So you are experiencing the depression on behalf of all other sentient beings.

That is an extremely beneficial, most beneficial one because you are utilizing the depression as a path to achieve full enlightenment. You are making the depression a medicine; you're using the depression as a path to enlightenment. You are using the depression to become means, like tantra practice, means to purify so many eons of negative karma and to accumulate infinite merit, to achieve enlightenment quicker. You are making the experience of depression extremely beneficial, useful for the happiness of all sentient beings. So that means, naturally, you have used your depression to achieve the best happiness for yourself, which is the highest, enlightenment.

Then the other very powerful technique is the depression is given to you by your ego, by the ego. The depression is a causative phenomenon. Depression is a causative phenomenon. So it has a cause. It has a cause. Depression has a cause. There could be external conditions, but the main cause is the inner cause, which is one's own mind. That is the past karma. That is the past karma, which is the intention, negative intention, having done something to disturb other's minds, made others’ minds unhappy, especially holy beings’ minds, disturbed the holy mind.

The cause for depression is mentioned in the teaching of the Wheel of Sharp Weapons. The teaching of the Wheel of Sharp Weapons is very extensive. It is not only bodhicitta practice to destroy the ego, but is also extensive meditation on karma. So, having displeased the holy mind of the virtuous friend and so forth in the past, like this, degenerated samaya.

So this negative intention happened due to ego, the self-centered mind. Therefore, this depression is given to you, this harm is given to you by the ego. By knowing this, by knowing who caused the depression, without delaying even a second, immediately you give the depression to the ego, immediately you return the depression back to the ego and destroy the ego. You know, let him have it! (laughter) Rather (Rinpoche laughs) than taking the depression on yourself, you just give it back to the ego and destroy the ego. So this way you have used the depression to destroy the ego.

If we are able to destroy the ego, if there is no ego, self-centered substantive mind, it means we have bodhicitta, cherishing other sentient beings. This way one has used the depression to develop bodhicitta, the door of the Mahayana path to enlightenment, to be able to liberate all sentient beings from all their suffering and lead them to enlightenment. So the benefit is infinite.

Another technique is to reflect on Buddha nature, which we have in our mental continuum. We have all the potential to actualize the whole path to enlightenment, all the realizations, all the infinite qualities of Buddha's holy body, holy speech and holy mind—all the potential is there. We just need to purify the mind so that all the realizations, all the qualities of Buddha come out. It manifests out. To reflect Buddha nature is another, depending on which type of depression, that is another extremely beneficial one.

Now I read this for you to receive oral transmission, as the motivation and oral transmission.

The beginning, A - H - A:

Aha, the hurt,
Kind lama, look to this pitiful one,
How I behave and how I have cheated myself my entire life.
Please look upon this mindless one with compassion.

The essential advice to give yourself—Heart-spoon
Keep it deep within your heart.
Don't be distracted; don't be distracted!
Reflect upon the state of your life from the essential drop at your heart.

Since beginningless cyclic existence, which hasn't ended up to now,
Though you have experienced countless cycles of rebirth—
Just so many variations on happiness and pain—
You have achieved not the slightest of benefit from them.

And though, at present, you have attained leisure and fortune, so difficult to find,
Always till now, they have finished and been lost, have been empty and without meaning.
Now, if you care about yourself,
The time has come to practice the essence of future happiness—virtuous actions.

You appear so capable, smart, and clever, but you are a fool.

(Rinpoche laughs), (laughter) (Rinpoche laughs) .

I mentioned a few times during one of the previous talks, “hallucinated happiness.” The people think, so excitedly, “I'm so happy.” But actually it is hallucinated, actually it is suffering. There are a lot of examples like this.

If you meditate on the cause of samsara, the delusions, the wrong concepts, and how the samsara pleasure is suffering, how the pleasure is suffering. Then, with this understanding, awareness, you can see how the people, sentient beings, think they are happy but how they are suffering in reality. How they are hallucinated. It is not real peace and happiness.

As long as you cling to the child's play of the appearances of this life,
Suddenly you are overwhelmed by the fearful lord of death,
And, without hope or the means to endure, there's nothing you can do.
This is going to happen to you!

Because you think, “I'm not going to die for some time. I'm not going to die for some time.”
While you are distracted by the never-ending activities of this life,
Suddenly, the fearful lord of death arrives,
Announcing, “Now is the time to die.”
This is going to happen to you!

Though you make arrangements, saying “tomorrow” and “tomorrow,”
Just then, suddenly, you have to go.
This is going to happen to you!

This is going to happen to me—to oneself. (laughter) (Rinpoche laughs)

And without choice leaving behind in disarray…

I don't know what it means. (laughter) (Rinpoche laughs)

Your left-off work, left food and drink, you have to depart.

Or left off chocolate or (laughter) maybe coffee or something, cheese, (Rinpoche laughs), (laughter) or ice cream.

This is going to happen to you!

There's no time other than today to spread [your bedding] and go off to sleep;
Upon your last bed you fall like an old tree,
And others, unable to turn you with their [lily] soft hands…

I had the experience to be with a person who was dying, who died in front of me, in front of me. Just before the breath completely stops, while they are going through the twenty-five absorptions, when it's a little bit later time, the body, it's true, the body becomes like a tree, very heavy. When you hold it, when you lift up the head, you get the feeling like you're lifting up a piece of wood. Exactly you get this feeling, very heavy and stiff. So, it's true what Pabongka Dechen Nyingpo is saying.

We did this translation together with Jampa, who was a monk for many years. Studied a long time, he began here, from one of those early courses and then studied a long time at Dharamsala in the Dialectic School. We translated together. I translated and then he chose the right terms. It was very good because he had very tasty words. (laughter) (Rinpoche laughs)

… Tug at your clothes and blanket. (laughter)
This is going to happen to you!

Even if you completely wrap your body in last under and outer clothes,
Still you have no freedom to wear them, other than just today.
And when that body becomes as rigid as earth and stone,
You behold for the first time your own corpse.
This is going to happen to you!

Though you struggle to speak your last words,
Your will and expressions of sorrow,
Pitifully your tongue dries up, and you can't make yourself clear.
An intense sadness overwhelms you.
This is going to happen to you!

Though others put your final food, holy substances and relics,
With a trickle of water into your mouth,
You're unable to swallow even a single drop,
And it overflows from the corpse's mouth.
This is going to happen to you!

“Though surrounded by a circle of close relatives, heart friends, and those near to your heart,
And even though they are loving and distressed at the ending of your being together,
While crying and clinging,
Just then you have to separate forever.
This is going to happen to you!

Though you experience horrific hallucinations, like turbulence of waves
And are overcome by unbearable excruciating pain,
Pitiful though you may be, there is nothing to be done.
The appearances of this life are setting.
This is going to happen to you!

“Appearances of this life are setting. This is going to happen to you.” Setting, like the sun setting, going down. This is going to happen to you.

Though with unbearable compassion, your lama and vajra friends…

Dharma friends and vajra friends, who took initiation together with you.

Plead in your ear for a critical virtuous thought to arise,
And even though they do so with loving minds,
There's no hope, it's unthinkable.
This is going to happen to you!

Sometimes there is the question, “What’s more important, to help during the life or at the death time, when the person is dying?”

There are various methods, especially in the Vajrayana, especially in tantra there are powerful means to help the dying person. Even if the person is on the way to lower realms, still the consciousness, which is the intermediate stage, can change their birth. Can go to pure land or can get deva or human rebirth. There are various methods on top of Buddhism, in the Mahayana sutra teachings. Then there are so many other powerful means in tantra, on top of that, there's so much to help at the time of death and after death.

But, as Pabongka mentioned here, how the dead time is going to turn out, how easy it's going to be, how much fear there's going to be, or frightening karmic appearances, and how much pain, all these things at the time of death, depends on how the person lives the present time, every day. If you can help while the person is healthy, if you can help while the person has the opportunity to understand and to practice, help as much as possible, then the person is able to practice, then that can benefit to make death easier, more peaceful and happy, at least not to have fear and to have a good rebirth. So both are important, but I think it is most important to help now.

With an expelled rasping sound, “sor, sor,” [at the time of death],
The movement of your breath builds faster and faster,
Then breaks like the string of a violin.
And the end of your life has come to its close.
This is going to happen to you!

There was one person in South India, a man, who was dying in front of me. Usually you hear this noise, stronger breathing out and breathing in weaker, then a very big noise and then it stops. I heard this before. So I was expecting to hear this while I was doing prayers but this particular person’s breath didn't make that noise. It became weaker, weaker, weaker, lighter and lighter. I didn't notice that person left. So, as Pabongka explained, the string of the violin stopped.

There will come a time when your cherished and sadly lost lovely body
Is called “corpse”—disgusting and rotten,
And a time when your body, which can't bear rough bedding and mattress,
Is laid out on bare ground.
This is going to happen to you!

There will come a time when your body, which can't bear even a thorn,
Is chopped to pieces and [from the bone] its flesh is torn.
A time when your body, which can't stand even fleas and lice,
Is devoured by birds and dogs till nothing is left.
This is going to happen to you!

Though you [go to so much trouble blowing] “pur… pur…,” in dressing your body in the finest delicate clothes...

I'm not sure in the West whether they do this or not, but I think when somebody dresses they make noise like this (Rinpoche exhales loudly, then laughs). Probably this might be more about those who are fat. I'm not sure.

There will come a time that body is placed within a burning house
And your body, which can't tolerate the fire of [a glowing stick of] incense,
Must be burned in the midst of a fiery conflagration.
This is going to happen to you!

There will come a time when, entering into roaring flames, all your flesh and bones are burned
And reduced to a pile of ash;
Or a time when your body, which can't bear even heavy cloth,
Is wedged tied in a hole in the ground.
This is going to happen to you!

There will come a time of announcing, “the deceased ____ [him or herself],”
At the beginning and end of your sweet name.
This is going to happen to you!
And a time when the area is filled with the sobbing sounds
Of your affectionate, close companions and circles of servants.
This is going to happen to you!

There will come a time when your clothes, hats, possessions, and livestock will be divided up,
With nothing left in the four directions and corners,
And there will come a time when, in total despair, alone,
You reach the passage to the intermediate state.
This is going to happen to you!

The terrors of the four fearful enemies descending upon you are going to come.
The appearance of being trapped under a mountain of packed rock and rubble
And buried beneath a furious avalanche of earth—what to do?
The appearance of being set adrift on the surface of a vast sea
And carried away by violent swirling waves—what to do?
The experience of your heart and ears being split open
By the sizzling and crackling sounds of fury conflagration—what to do?
The fearful experience of being enveloped and swept away
By the swirling dark winds of the end of an eon—what to do?

When you are driven by the powerful red winds of karma,
And swallowed up by a terrifying darkness—what to do?
When you are bound with a lasso by the messengers of Yama,
And in total despair are led away—what to do?
When you are tortured in so many detestable ways,
By ox- and scorpion-headed karmic agents—what to do?

When you are before the Yama King, the Lord of Death,
As he weigh up the white and blacks—your virtuous and non-virtuous actions—what to do?

When Yama exposes your lie of having spent
Your human life in attachment, hatred and deceit—what to do?

When at Yama's court the punishment that is the ripening effect
Of your negative actions is measured out—what to do?

When your naked body is stretched out, under glowing red hot iron
Ground in the fires of hell—what to do?

“Though your body is cut to pieces by a rain of weapons,
Still you must experience it without dying—what to do?

Though you are cooked in molten iron until your flesh falls away and your bones disintegrate,
Still you must experience it without dying—what to do?

Though your body and the fire burn inseparably,
Still you must experience it without dying—what to do?

When you body is pierced by a freezing cold wind
And cracks into a hundred thousand pieces—what to do?

Having fallen into the miserable state of a hungry ghost with its hunger and thirst,
You have to starve for many years—what to do?

“When you’ve become one of those stupid, dumb, unfortunate animals
That eat each other alive—what to do?

When the unbelievable sufferings of the evil-gone realms
Have actually befallen you—what to do?

Now! Don't be distracted – “La…ur…la…ur…” (The sound which expresses “quickly, hurry up”)
Right this moment is the time to steel your will.

It’s not only time—it’s almost too late.
Right now! Right now! “La…ur…la…ur…,” [apply yourself with] great force.

Then the next one is the answer. What is the best thing to do? Right now, what is the best thing to do in the life? After all this, the conclusion.

Holy precept of the lama, kind father,
Heart of the authoritative scriptures of the Victorious Losang…
The Lama Tsongkhapa teachings, like refined gold unified sutra and tantra.
Practice of the pure path of complete sutra and tantra. [pure like refined gold]
It's time to place real experience upon your mindstream.

Then there's one more stanza.

Who is the faster:
Yama, the Lord of Death,
Or you in your practice of realizing the essence of your eternal dream—
The welfare of both yourself and others—as much as you can each day?

This means practicing, not just practicing Buddhadharma, the lesser vehicle teachings, but practicing Mahayana. And not practicing just Mahayana paramitayana, but practicing Mahayana tantra. Then not only the lower tantra but practicing the highest tantra; then not only just practicing highest tantra but practicing Lama Tsongkhapa's teaching that is unified sutra and tantra. The complete pure teaching, that which is unified sutra and tantra, which has incredible clarity, clarity in the general path and in particular, tantra, in the very subtle important points. And which has integration of the special practice, the integration of the three deities, Guhyasamaja, Yamantaka and Chakrasamvara, which makes to achieve enlightenment much quicker than general maha-anuttarayoga tantra.

Practicing all these teachings, based on correctly devoting, based not on what you like, not what you are interested in, but based on correctly devoting to the virtuous friend. This way, without taking much time, without much difficulty, one can quickly attain realizations of the path in general and particularly tantra, and therefore achieve enlightenment quickly.


Who is the faster:
Yama, the Lord of Death,
Or you in your practice of realizing the essence of your eternal dream—
The welfare of both yourself and others—as much as you can each day?
Unifying the three doors [of your body, speech and mind]
Put the whole of your effort into your practice.

The oral transmission is done. I'm just going to do very quickly the preparation for Chenrezig initiation.

Offer a short mandala. As there is a great need, a special need for the benefit for the disciple, as a part of tantra practice, one visualizes the lama who grants the preparation as inseparable from the principal deity of the mandala, the Compassion Buddha; visualize in that aspect. Also the place where one takes the preparation can be visualized as Chenrezig celestial pure land or celestial mansion. And then visualize one's own body, speech and mind and all the three-time merit as the various offerings, by decorating the mandala, the universe, then offering without any clinging.

Think something very short like this. “In this life, while I have this perfect human body, have met a virtuous friend and have met Buddhadharma. To have received this human body is not sufficient not to be reborn, after the death of this life not to be reborn in the lower realms. In the six realms, wherever I get reborn, this is totally only in the suffering nature. Just like sitting on the tip of needle. Therefore, I must be liberated from this whole entire samsara, which is like being in the center of the hot red fire.”

Now after this, think, all the suffering obstacles, all the undesirable things came from the ego, my ego, the self-cherishing thought. That means all the problems, all the obstacles came from me. So “I” is object to be renounced forever, to be renounced forever. Forever, for what: for the happiness of all sentient beings, for the happiness of the numberless other sentient beings. That includes the temporary and ultimate happiness of oneself and is the best way to achieve happiness for oneself, temporary and ultimate, including enlightenment.

Now all the happiness, all my three-time happiness, all the good things came from bodhicitta. That is by cherishing other sentient beings. So therefore, all my three-time happiness, all the enjoyment, every single good thing, I received by the kindness of each sentient being. So, each sentient being is so precious, so kind and so precious for me, in my life. In my life there is nobody to cherish than other sentient beings. In my life there are no others to cherish than the sentient beings. In my life there's nobody to work for other than the sentient beings.

Now, this is the great conclusion of the attitude of life, or how we should treat life. What the sentient beings want is happiness. What they do not want is suffering. So therefore, I must free them from all the obscurations, all the sufferings and lead to full enlightenment. To do this perfectly, first I myself should achieve full enlightenment. Then, even this quickly, otherwise it is so unbearable that sentient beings have to suffer in samsara for a long time. It's so unbearable. Therefore, I must achieve enlightenment quicker.

This is the attitude, the motivation for tantra.

“And for that then I need to actualize bodhicitta quicker and quicker, which comes from the root of compassion. Now for that then, I need to receive the blessings of the special deity, the deity of compassion. This Compassion Buddha, Chenrezig, is that deity. Therefore, in order to receive the blessing of the deity, I need to do meditation and recitation of the deity. In order to be qualified for that I need to take the initiation. My mind has to be ripened by receiving this initiation. Therefore, I am going to take the preparation of the initiation.”

Now you have to generate yourself into Chenrezig, one face two arm, like White Tara, but without the eyes. White Tara has seven eyes, not that, but otherwise the same. There are no eyes in the hands and on the ends of the feet.


(Rinpoche gives the preparation of the initiation.)

Now make request that you can receive refuge, bodhisattva vows and so forth.

Next one is leading the disciple to hold stable faith in the tantra, as I have already mentioned before the basic benefits. I didn't mention particularly much about the highest tantra, the lower tantra, the general tantra.

Then next one is taking bodhisattva vows. Whoever is actually taking the initiation, without taking bodhisattva vows cannot receive, cannot take initiation. It involves wishing vows and entering vows. Those who haven't heard or who haven't studied them, after having taken, must get those texts and study.

Think all the lineage lamas of this Chenrezig initiation, from Gelongma Palmo, the full bhikshuni, and all the other lineage lamas, then all the buddhas and bodhisattvas around. Then in presence of them, think “I'm taking bodhisattva vows.”

[Rinpoche prays Tibetan]

First one, second refuge

[Rinpoche leads group in Tibetan prayer]

I'm confessing all the negative karmas.

[Rinpoche speaks in Tibetan and the group repeats it]

The next one is, “How happy I am that so much merit has been accumulated in the past, present and future by myself and also the three-time merits accumulated by others, buddhas, bodhisattvas and sentient beings, how happy I am. How wonderful it is.”

[Rinpoche speaks in Tibetan and the group repeats it]

[Rinpoche speaks again in Tibetan]

At the end of this third repetition, must generate the thought that I have received bodhisattva vow in the presence of all the lineage lamas, the lama clarified as Chenrezig and all the buddhas and bodhisattvas around. That's extremely important. If you don't generate the thought of having received the bodhisattva's vow then you don't receive the bodhisattva's vow. So to generate the thought, “I have received bodhisattva's vow” is extremely important.

“The reason for my life is to free all sentient beings from suffering and lead to enlightenment, and for that I need to achieve enlightenment. For the cause of that then having realization of bodhicitta is not enough, one has to live in the bodhisattva vows. How extremely fortunate I am that at this time I have this opportunity.”

Then one must generate the thought, “I have received the bodhisattva vows.”

[Rinpoche speaks and the group repeats]

Now blessing you, the disciple’s, body, speech and mind; first protecting then blessing.

[Rinpoche prays in Tibetan]

Now, as there is no time, from the conch shell blessing water I will put like this. I just do like this and visualize and you should think that it has touched at your heart and throat.

Then the meditation is you are purified into Chenrezig, one-face two-arms, then at your heart is a black vajra, five pronged black vajra standing, in the center, there is sun disc, black HUNG in the center. In your neck chakra there is 8-petalled lotus, moon disc, and red AH. In your crown chakra 8-spoked wheel, in the center there is moon disc, white OM. So you visualize hum ah om, like this you visualize.

Then from the Guru clarified as Chenrezig white nectar beams, red nectar beams and blue nectar beams are emitted and purify all your obscurations and negative karma of body, speech and mind. And your body, speech and mind become inseparable with, your body, speech and mind are blessed into Chenrezig's holy body, holy speech and holy mind.

[Rinpoche. says a long prayer in Tibetan]

Now, since your body, speech and mind have received the blessing of Chenrezig’s holy body, speech and mind, you become object to receive offerings. Purpose of this is from now on whatever enjoyments we have, without becoming a shortcoming of samsara, one must use the enjoyment in order to develop the wisdom that is non-dual in profundity and clarity. In order to develop this, one must use the enjoyments.

Think you are receiving incense offering.

[Rinpoche speaks Tibetan]

Think you have received flower, garland, on your crown. Then now incense to nose.

[Rinpoche speaks Tibetan phrase]

And then, the light offering to the eyes.

[Rinpoche recites a puja]

Scented water for the heart.

Now dropping the stick; this is to examine whether the disciple has the fortune to achieve realization or not and what realization can be achieved, to check that. By reciting the mantra OM VAJRA HASA HUM, then while looking into space one drops it without hesitation into the mandala. What kind of realization is introduced is depending where the tip of the stick faces.

Maybe one person drops for everybody, just to save time.

------- will drop, so everybody think, you visualize you are also dropping stick.

[Rinpoche recites mantra]

[Rinpoche recites mantra and the group repeats]

Ah, controlling, controlling. (Rinpoche laughs) The attainment is controlling. The ultimate control is to control one's own mind, especially the subtle mind. In this way one can control everything.

Depending on which direction it falls indicates pacifying realization, controlling, increasing and wrathful. If it falls toward the side of the lama then the sublime realization, achievement of the pure realm or common siddhis, if it's upside down like that.


[Rinpoche recites in Tibetan and then after the pouring of water he prays quietly]

[Rinpoche recites mantra and prays]

You drink this. First one is to clean the mouth, the second one is to drink three times, thinking it has purified particularly the negative karmas of speech.

Now in order to have clear dreams the kusha grass is given. To check the dream whether there is obstacle to achieve, to practice, to attain Compassion Buddha, whether there is an obstacle, whether one can attain or not, to check that. To have clear dream the kusha grass is given, because the kusha grass has power to purify pollutions. The short one is to put under the pillow, and the long one to put under the mattress or the bed.

The long one is this one here.

[Rinpoche recites mantra]

This is short one.

[Rinpoche recites mantras]


[Rinpoche recites mantras and prays]

The protection string is given to protect from the obstacles, normally with the explanation. According to HH Zong Rinpoche on the three knots you visualize Maitreya Buddha sending light into your heart and your whole heart is filled with loving kindness. Because on the fifteenth morning, when the Buddha, during the action of becoming enlightened, that time the 100 millions of maras tried to attack but Buddha controlled, subdued them by meditating on loving kindness. So that is the best protection.

Now the next one is causing to generate happiness, having the opportunity to meet tantra.

[Rinpoche recites prayers in Tibetan]

Now protecting by sprinkling the water from the vase with the mantra, the action mantra.

[Rinpoche recites mantra]

This is to be recited when one goes to bed; this mantra should be recited just three times or whatever.

[Rinpoche recites a mantra 3 times]

The next one is giving advice to check the dream. The night-time is divided into three times. The upper part is gone. (Rinpoche laughs) (laughter) Maybe somebody had dream already. (laughter) (Rinpoche laughs) The upper part is gone and the middle night, then the lower part of night, around three o'clock, or four, or five, those times, by dividing the night-time in three divisions, the latter, third part, when one goes to bed, go to bed to be able to remember, to recognize the dream.

Now a mandala offering to thank for having received the preparation.

[Rinpoche leads the group in Tibetan prayers]

Due to all the three-time merits accumulated by myself, all buddhas, bodhisattvas and sentient beings. While they're existing, which are empty, may I, while it is existing, which is empty, achieve Compassion Buddha's enlightenment while it is existing, which is empty. And lead all sentient beings while they are existing, which are empty, to that enlightenment, while it is existing, it is empty, as quickly as possible by myself alone.

I have finished. (Rinpoche laughs) (laughter) Please have good sleep. (Rinpoche laughs)

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