We are responsible for the welfare of each sentient being. We are completely responsible for enabling other sentient beings to obtain happiness and for pacifying their sufferings.
First, let's use ourselves as examples. While none of us want others to have anger towards us, we do want everyone to treat us with loving kindness and compassion. We wish that no-one would harm us, and that everyone would only help and benefit us. This is what we all want. This is the attitude and the action that we want others to have towards us. How can we bring this about? How can we make it happen?
This is using ourselves as examples. Likewise, every other sentient being—everyone whose mental continuum is separate from ours—wants us to have exactly the same feelings towards him or her. Other sentient beings do not want us to be angry with them; they want us to treat them with loving kindness and compassion. They do not want us to harm them, but would rather our actions benefit them. They would like us to be this way. They are depending on us to be kind and to help them. Therefore, it is very clear that we are responsible for bringing happiness to every other sentient being and for pacifying his/her sufferings. This is completely our responsibility. It is on our shoulders.
It is very important to be aware of this in everyday life. Even if other sentient beings do not practice Dharma and do not change their attitudes, it doesn't matter. Starting with our family, with however many members it has—one, five or ten—even if they do not practice Dharma and do not change their actions towards us, leave it at that. Even if all other sentient beings do not practice Dharma and do not change their attitude; even if all of them are angry with us, harm us, never have compassion for us or benefit us, even if they all criticize us and there is no sentient being who respects us, that is not really very harmful. We are only one person, so it is not very important.
PREVENTING GREAT HARM
If we ourselves, one person, do not change our attitudes and our actions, there is danger to all other sentient beings. If all others harm us, it is no big deal, because we are only one person, so there is only one person receiving harm. But if we do not change our attitudes and actions, then there is danger to countless others. We cannot count the number of other sentient beings who are endangered by our harmful attitudes and actions. Therefore, we can see how unbelievably important it is for us, one person, to practice Dharma, to subdue our negative mind and to develop love and compassion.
We can see this in history. When one person does not practice controlling his/her anger; when one person does not control his/her mind and does not practice patience, loving kindness and compassion, many millions of people have been killed. This is just talking about human beings, without counting the creatures in the oceans, in the forests and elsewhere that were killed as the result of this one person's actions. If one person does not practice Dharma and does not control his/her mind, the number of other sentient beings that are endangered is unbelievable. We can just look at the history of our world to verify this.
Right now, we have this perfect human body that gives us all the opportunities to practice the Dharma, and we have met the teachings. We have not just met the Buddhadharma, but we have come in contact with the Mahayana teachings which are even more rare and precious. The Mahayana teachings give so many answers; they contain so many solutions and methods to develop the mind. They are very profound and expansive. From the side of Buddha's teachings, they do not cheat us and there is nothing misleading or erroneous. If we practice them, definitely our mental defilements and stains will cease, and the continuum of our present mind will become omniscient. These teachings definitely lead to enlightenment.
While we have this perfect human body which gives us all the opportunities to practice Dharma, if we do not do it, then it could be dangerous. Each of us, if not in this life, then in future ones, could harm others just as certain people have done previously in history. We could even destroy the world.
Look at just this lifetime, from the time we were born until now. Because we have not practiced the good heart, because we have not developed the method to be harmonious with others, we have gotten angry and have harmed others. How many times have we been under the control of disturbing thoughts and hurt others through actions of our body, speech and mind?
Think of the beginningless rebirths we have taken in cyclic existence until now. Because we have not ceased the disturbing thoughts, anger, and the self-cherishing mind, there is not one sentient being whom we have not harmed in the past. In fact, we have brought harm to each and every sentient being numberless times while we have wandered in the cycle of samsara. We cannot even count how many times we have harmed just one sentient being since beginningless time. If we do not change this attitude—if we do not practice Dharma and transform our attitudes and actions, the danger of us harming others in the future is great. The actions of one person, me, can affect countless others. This is very serious.
In this way, we can see how important it is to change our attitude and how completely wrong it is not to try to do so. What is the use of us following the self-cherishing thought, anger and so forth, and yet expecting others to practice and to change their attitudes and actions? We then think, "They don't change, so why should I? They don't practice Dharma, they don't practice patience, so why should I?" This way of thinking is completely useless and it is a wrong way of thinking. It is like saying, "They are eating poison, so I will too." Then you do just as they do. Just this is reason enough to practice patience in our daily lives.
When we remember our responsibility towards every sentient being—to pacify their sufferings and bring about their happiness, then there is no time to be angry. There is no time, no opportunity to harm them.
Think about all the benefits of practicing Dharma. Take a couple, for example. If one of them practices Dharma, it is so beneficial. If one person—either the husband or the wife—practices Dharma, develops compassion and loving kindness, then that one person's mind is tranquil. Even if the other person does not change at all, because one person practices the whole situation is better. If the husband practices, then his own mind is happy, so when the wife is angry and tries to harm him, he does not retaliate. He does not get angry at her, therefore, she is happier, because she does not receive harm from him. That gives her more peace. If the husband retaliates, then she not only has the problem of her original anger, but she also receive harm. In addition, she has more problems, because she gets angry and creates more negative karma with body, speech and mind. The situation continues, getting worse and worse.
However, if the husband practices patience, then she will experience peace. That peace depends on the husband's attitude and actions that came from him. She and others around her receive less harm and have more peace. Of course, if both people practice, there is no question of the result and the great benefit that comes.
Here, we are talking about only one couple. If there is a family with five or ten people, and one of them practices Dharma, and controls his/her mind, then, even if the other nine do not practice, at least they do not receive harm. The harm received by the other nine members becomes less, and the harm they receive from one person stops because she is practicing. The other nine members of the family have peace. You can see that the happiness and peace of nine people completely depend on that one person. If she did not practice, then there would be additional problems, but because he or she practices, the other nine have fewer problems.
If one person practices bodhicitta, then an uncountable number of other sentient beings do not receive harm from one person. They have more peace. It is similar to the family, only more beings are involved . As we practice Dharma and control our mind, the harm received by all other sentient beings becomes less. They receive that much more peace. That peace that they experience is dependent on us; it comes from us. Now you can see how each of us is completely responsible for every sentient being’s happiness and for the pacification of his/her suffering.
You can see why Dharma practice is so important. Practicing Dharma means subduing the mind, controlling the disturbing thoughts. When an action or thought becomes the remedy to a disturbing thought or harmful action then that is the Dharma. This relates specifically to our daily lives, for example, if we look at other people with respect and loving kindness; if we smile at them with a good heart and compassion, it makes them happy and they appreciate our attitude and our action. Even just smiling makes other sentient beings happy.
When we sincerely respect others, and show it by means of our body, speech and mind, they are happy. Remember how sentient beings are the source of all of our happiness and our attainments. They are so precious and kind—their kindness towards us is immeasurable. If we remember this, then we can respect other sentient beings just as we respect the Buddha and the Sangha. When we sincerely show respect to others from our heart, this makes them happy and joyful.
From these simple examples, we can see how we can bring others happiness. Every day we are involved with so many people—in the family, at work and in the streets. If we have good manners and respect, and appreciate their kindness, it makes them happy. Their happiness depends upon us. You can see from examples in daily life how our positive attitude affects them. How we act and behave with them makes a difference in their lives, and in this way, you can see how other sentient beings' happiness completely depends on us. We are responsible.
Thus, it is unbelievably important to practice and develop bodhicitta. If there is the good heart, an attitude of compassion and loving kindness, then our actions become helpful and beneficial. Others receive happiness as a result of our good heart. The ultimate good heart is bodhicitta. The more we develop a good heart, the more extensive is the benefit received by other sentient beings. As we develop our capacity, our potential and wisdom, then we are able to offer more and more extensive benefit to others. The benefit we can give expands all the way up to enlightenment.
THE GRADUAL PATH TO ENLIGHTENMENT
Generating bodhicitta is not just saying a prayer. Reciting the bodhicitta prayer alone does not mean we can have bodhicitta. We have to know the entire teachings on how to develop it, then we have to train the mind, step-by-step, in order to generate it.
There are many texts describing the methods to develop bodhicitta. There are the elaborate, middle and condensed lam-rim, the gradual path to enlightenment, by Lama Tsongkhapa. The very brief one is called the Songs of Experience. There are other lam-rim teachings too, which explain how to practice the gradual path to enlightenment, which goes from the practices at the beginning until the highest stages of the tantric practice. The teachings on the gradual path to enlightenment are set up so that we can practice them without any confusion. This is due to the kindness of Lama Atisha, Lama Tsongkhapa and so forth, who arranged the teachings in this way.
The great pandit, Lama Atisha, helped to spread and establish Buddhism in Tibet. The system of lam-rim, the gradual path to enlightenment, started with him. All the teachings of the gradual path come from the Buddha and are found in the sutras and tantras. The Buddha explained them extensively in the sutras, and later the great Indian pandits wrote commentaries on them. The lam-rim scriptures put all the information found on each subject in the sutras together, then these subjects were put in order to form a step-by-step guide: we begin by meditating on guru devotion, then perfect human rebirth, then the gradual path of the person of initial capacity and the gradual path of the middle capacity being. It shows us, step-by-step, how to generate the path. In this way, we can understand the Buddha's entire teachings, from the very beginning to the end, enlightenment.
When we want to benefit others and therefore, want to achieve enlightenment in order to do so in the best way, then we start to practice from the meditation on guru devotion and go on. Practicing in a gradual way enables us to reach enlightenment for the benefit of other sentient beings. In this way we never have confusion about where to begin, what to practice next, and so on. There is no confusion at all. The lam-rim teachings are an incredible protection for us. Lama Atisha wrote the lam-rim, the gradual path to enlightenment, in order to describe how one person can gradually practice the Buddha's teachings and reach enlightenment. There is nothing contradictory in it. After Lama Atisha, other lamas wrote commentaries on the lam-rim. Some are very extensive and are full of experience.
Even if we have no time to read all the various sutras, because Buddha gave so many teachings and our lives are so busy, then we can read the lam-rim and get the essential points. We can read one page or thirty or one hundred pages and see the step-by-step progression of how to train our minds. The lam-rim provides us with clear guidance on the path. It is set up in a straight-forward manner, ready to practice, like food that is cooked and on the table, ready to eat. Without such clear guidance, we could get lost. We can study many scriptures but be lost and not know where to begin to practice. If we do not know the gradual way to develop and train our minds, it is very difficult. Nothing happens in the mind to actualize bodhicitta. Generating bodhicitta depends on having developed the previous steps of the path. This is especially true if we want to practice tantra. We must have trained in the previous steps, otherwise our minds cannot receive the tantric realizations. It is very important to know the benefits of lam-rim.
Also, if we do not understand the gradual path to enlightenment, it will be very difficult to guide other sentient beings. How can we guide them? We can guide them step by step, therefore we must know this step-by step method.
So far, how much have you learned about lam-rim? How much have you understood the teachings on the gradual path to enlightenment ? How much have you learned compared to other people? Check up how clearly you understand the fundamental teaching, and on top of that, tantra. You can see how much you have learned and understood if you compare your understanding from studying the lam-rim with that of people who have not studied it. Then you can see and appreciate how much knowledge you have. You can see how clear your knowledge of the Dharma is and how well you understand how to practice the path. Compare yourself with other people who have no understanding at all of the lam-rim and who do not understand Dharma at all, those who are completely ignorant. Compare your understanding with that of someone who has studied the Dharma and has some understanding of sutra and tantra, but does not know the gradual path. What happens if you ask him/her how to practice from the beginning of the path to the end; how to follow the steps on the path of enlightenment? What are the details of the path? How do we perceive the path? That person may find difficulty in answering.
The great pandit, Lama Atisha, was invited to Tibet during the time when the Tibetans had confusion about the path. There were many problems and confusion because people did not understand how to integrate the practice of sutra and tantra. The king's nephew requested Lama Atisha to write a text and to give teachings on refuge and karma. By writing the first lam-rim text, Lama Atisha clarified the points that the people had thought were contradictory. He set up the gradual path in order to resolve the problems of the people who did not know how to practice the teachings of the three vehicles in an integrated way. He showed that all of the Buddha's teachings were for the practice of one person to achieve enlightenment. Lama Atisha said the Tibetan people were very foolish, so he would present the teachings in a simple and clear way. By this, he destroyed all the wrong conceptions that the people in Tibet had about how to practice Dharma.
Thus, Lama Atisha was unbelievably kind, as were the other lamas who wrote commentaries to his text. Due to their kindness, we now have the great opportunity and fortune to learn and practice the gradual path to enlightenment. As we study more, we will recognize, more and more, the benefits of understanding the lam-rim. Even having an intellectual understanding brings a lot of joy.
We should know the benefits of such a teaching, and then learn the teaching for the benefit of sentient beings. We should realize how much we are benefiting sentient beings by learning and practicing the Buddha's teachings on the gradual path.
In Sydney, Australia, someone asked, "How do we benefit other sentient beings?" I responded, "By showing the right path." Showing the right path to other sentient beings is the best way to benefit them, but to show the right path to others, we need to understand it first. We need to understand it correctly and then practice it. The more experience we have of the path, the more effectively we can show it to others.
THE IMPORTANCE OF DHARMA CENTERS
Furthermore, having a teaching program like this and a Dharma center where people can hear and practice the teachings is so beneficial for others. When they hear teachings, it is so beneficial for others. When they hear teachings on karma, from the path of the beings of initial capacity, they develop faith in the Buddha, karma, and they will take advantage of the opportunity to accumulate merit. They will also abandon negative karmas, and will take the five precepts and the eight precepts. Even if they do not take all five precepts, they will abandon two or three of the negative actions and accumulate good karma by observing some of the precepts. This is how we benefit sentient beings and protect them from being born in the lower realms. By helping them to understand refuge and karma, the basic subjects, they are protected from the lower realms. Otherwise, they could easily be born in those realms where, for hundreds of years, they have to experience suffering. While in the lower realms, they again create more negative karma to be born there again. They wander for eons in these unfortunate states without even being able to hear the sound of a human voice. Thus, by teaching them refuge and karma, we give them the opportunity to abandon negative actions and create positive ones so that they can be reborn in an upper realm.
Then we reveal the teachings of the gradual path of the beings of middle capacity, and the sentient beings come to understand the disadvantages of cyclic existence. Then they want to be liberated from it. This will lead them to practice the three higher training: morality, concentration and wisdom and in this way they will be led to liberation. By revealing the teachings of the Great Vehicle—bodhicitta, the six perfections, etc—we will bring the sentient beings to enlightenment. In this way, they will not remain in the state of self-complacent, peaceful nirvana.
These are the practical benefits of showing the right path to sentient beings. These are the benefits of our activities of listening, discussing and teaching. This is the purpose of what we are doing. It is very important to recognize the benefits of the Dharma activities that we are doing, then we can feel much joy, because we know how much benefit we are able to offer to other sentient beings. Our heart is very joyful and happy.
We need to continue to develop our understanding so that we can help others. In this life, we need to experience as much of the path as possible, and leave imprints of all the teachings as much as possible, while there is the opportunity to do so. Then, even if it is not possible to gain full realizations in this life, in future lives we will be able to do so. We should practice as much as possible now.
As I have mentioned at other times, the number of sentient beings is uncountable. They are much more precious than just one person, which is oneself. For that reason, we should work to bring about happiness for all sentient beings and to eliminate their sufferings. There is nothing more important than that. All of our past, present and future happiness comes from sentient beings, therefore, we are responsible for repaying their kindness by leading them to happiness and pacifying their sufferings. When we see and know about the suffering of sentient beings, if we do not help them, then who will? If we, who understand how much suffering they are undergoing, do not help them, then who should? Even if they do not ask us, even if they do not beg us, it is our responsibility. We have a mind which can see that others are suffering and that they do not have freedom. Simply for this reason, we are responsible for helping them to have happiness and pacify their suffering.
For example, there is a blind person who is in danger of falling over a precipice. We have eyes and can see that the person is in danger. Even if the person does not beg us, even if he does not ask us for help, we can see the danger he is in and we are responsible for protecting him immediately. Simply by the fact that we see the other person is in danger and needs help, we are responsible for helping him.
When we become enlightened, what we do is help other sentient beings. Even if we become enlightened now, what we do is help other sentient beings. The highest action, the best guidance for sentient beings is to reveal the Dharma. This was the way the Buddha guided sentient beings best. Revealing the Dharma is the Buddha's best way to help others, to liberate them from suffering and lead them to enlightenment. We are now very fortunate to be able to organize Dharma activities in order to benefit other sentient beings. We should feel fortunate and joyful that we are making our life beneficial by showing others the right path.
The more we hear teachings on emptiness again and again, the more it leaves imprints on our mind stream to realize it. Thus, each time we hear teachings on emptiness, we get closer and closer to liberation. One pandit in India was reciting a Dharma scripture in his cave. There was a pigeon living nearby the cave, so every day while he recited the scriptures, the pigeon heard it. Later, the pigeon died and then was born to a family in that area. The pandit checked up with his clairvoyance, where the pigeon was born and saw the person would become a monk. He then went to the family and asked them if he could have the baby. They agreed, so the child became a monk, and became an expert in that branch of the Dharma because in his past life, while he had been a pigeon, the imprint was left when he heard the scriptures being recited. This disciple wrote commentaries on this branch of the Dharma.
Therefore, it is so important in this life, while we have this incredible opportunity for a few years, that we at least try to leave as much imprint of the Dharma as possible on our mind stream. Even if we cannot practice, even if we cannot reach enlightenment now, at least make an effort to leave as much imprint of the Dharma as possible on our mind. This is very important and very wise.
To accomplish the path depends on developing the wisdom realizing emptiness. This, in turn, depends on developing the good heart. The more we have a good heart, bodhicitta, the less we accumulate negative karma through actions that harm others. We also accumulate more merit. Therefore, the practice of bodhicitta is a skillful means to realize the wisdom of emptiness quickly. I pray that you will receive the full commentary to the Heart Sutra, and that many lamas come so it will be possible to receive the extensive commentary on it.
BEARING THE HARDSHIP
Over the last few days, I have kept you here for many hours and drained your energy, so it is difficult for you to go to work the next morning. Having the opportunity to listen to and practice the Dharma is rare, and having the chance to bear hardships for that end is also rare. We readily bear much hardship to create non-virtuous actions, but in the past and present, we have rarely borne hardships in order to practice the Dharma for the benefit of sentient beings. While the Buddha was a bodhisattva, he made charity of his own body to sentient beings so many times. For three countless great eons, he practiced and accumulated merit to attain enlightenment for sentient beings and he offered charity so many times and gave his whole life for sentient beings. Therefore, since this is part of the path to enlightenment, we should feel joyful and be able to bear hardship in order to practice Dharma and to listen to the teachings.
The more difficult the situation in which we practice the Dharma is, the greater the purification. Enduring heat or cold while practicing helps us to purify. The monasteries in Tibet are unbelievably cold, and some of the monks do not even wear shoes. Sometimes they chant, meditate, debate and memorize scriptures the whole night. To endure this hardship in the cold is regarded as a great purification, because without bearing hardships, there is no way to achieve enlightenment or to develop the mind. Therefore, bearing hardships for non-virtuous action results in suffering. In reality, it is like that.
I would like to say thank you very much to everybody , I enjoyed visiting Singapore very much this time.
Please dedicate the merits in order to attain enlightenment for other sentient beings. Dedicate so that you and all others can develop bodhicitta and the wisdom realizing emptiness. Dedicate the merit also so that His Holiness the Dalai Lama and all other holy beings have long lives and that all their wishes are actualized immediately. Dedicate for all sentient beings to have happiness, to accumulate merit, to purify all obscurations and to achieve enlightenment quickly.
In all our lives, through the Victorious One, Lama Tsongkhapa, acting as the actual Mahayana spiritual master, may we never turn aside for even an instant from the excellent path praised by the Victorious One.
May anyone who merely sees, hears, remembers, touches or talks to me be freed in that very instant from all sufferings and abide in happiness forever.
In order to follow the excellent example set by the wisdom of the bodhisattva Manjushri and the always sublime Samantabhadra, I dedicate all virtues to their peerless ideals.
All the Conquerors of the three times have praised as supreme this peerless dedication. Therefore, I also surrender all roots of my activities to the sublime goals of a bodhisattva.