This glossary contains an alphabetical list of Buddhist terms that you may find on this website. The glossary includes English, Sanskrit and Tibetan terms. The list of terms is expanding and new listings are added regularly. Search for the term you want by entering it in the search box, or browse through the listing by clicking on the letters below.

The great second-century Indian philosopher and tantric adept who propounded the Madhyamaka philosophy of emptiness. He is one of six great Indian scholars, known as the Six Ornaments.

Snake-like beings of the animal realm who live in or near bodies of water; commonly associated with fertility of the land, but can also function as protectors of religion.

Food; one of the offering substances.

A Mahayana Buddhist monastic university founded in the fifth century in North India, not far from Bodhgaya, which served as a major source of the Buddhist teachings that spread to Tibet.

Geshe Wangchen was educated at Drepung Monastery in Tibet. He served as the resident teacher at Jamyang Buddhist Centre, London, for many years, and is now a respected teacher at the re-established Drepung Monastery in South India.

One of three long-life deities, with Amitayus and White Tara.

The half-brother of Shakyamuni Buddha, whose attachment was overcome by the Buddha’s skillful means.

Hell, either an overall term for the hell realm, or a specific term, as in the hot hells or cold hells.

The Indian mahasiddha, a disciple of Tilopa and guru of Marpa and Maitripa, who transmitted many tantric lineages, including that of the renowned Six Yogas of Naropa.

The official State Oracle of Tibet, currently residing in Dharamsala.

A lay tantric practitioner.

Western Tibet, where Atisha first arrived. He wrote his Lamp for the Path at the monastery of Thöling in Zhang-Zhung, or Gugé.

Lama Zopa Rinpoche’s first alphabet teacher.

The doctrine that nothing exists; that, for example, there's no cause and effect of actions, or no past and future lives; as opposed to eternalism.

In the context of Buddhist teachings, someone who, upon hearing about emptiness, comes to the mistaken conclusion that nothing exists; for example, that there's no cause and effect of actions or no past and future lives.

The nine stages a meditator passes through to attain full calm abiding (Skt: shamatha; Tib: shi-nä).

The nine-point death meditation is an important meditation on the impermanence of this life, consisting of three main roots: death is certain, the time of death is uncertain and nothing can help at the time of death except Dharma practice. Each root has three points and a conclusion.

A meditation technique using nine inhalations and exhalations with specific visualizations to calm and clear the mind.

The emanation body of a buddha that manifests in a variety of forms for sentient beings. See also dharmakaya, rupakaya, sambhogakaya, three kayas and four kayas.

The eight components of the path to cessation of suffering taught by the Buddha. They are: correct speech, correct action, correct livelihood, correct effort, correct mindfulness, correct concentration, correct understanding and correct view.

According to the Prasangika school, the nirvana of a buddha, neither in the extreme of samsara nor in a Hinayana arhat’s nirvana without residue; one of the three types of nirvana, the other two being nirvana (or cessation) with and without residue. See cessation with residue and cessation without residue.

Negative karma; that which results in suffering.

The old translation school of Tibetan Buddhism, which traces its teachings back to the time of Padmasambhava, the eighth century Indian tantric master invited to Tibet by King Trisong Detsen to clear away hindrances to the establishment of Buddhism in Tibet. The first of the four main schools of Tibetan Buddhism. Cf. Kagyü, Sakya and Gelug.

A follower of the Nyingma tradition.

A two-day Thousand-arm Chenrezig retreat that involves fasting, prostrations and silence.